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Hydroxamic Acid-Based Histone Deacetylase (HDAC) Inhibitors Bearing a Pyrazole Scaffold and a Cinnamoyl Linker
Open AccessReview

Regulation of Chemokines and Cytokines by Histone Deacetylases and an Update on Histone Decetylase Inhibitors in Human Diseases

1
Department of Pediatric Oncology, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA
2
Department of Oncology, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA
3
Department of Microbiology, New York University, New York, NY 10016, USA
4
Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
5
Center for Distance Learning, GITAM University, Visakhapatnam, AP 530045, India
6
Department of Physiology, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(5), 1110; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20051110
Received: 30 January 2019 / Revised: 26 February 2019 / Accepted: 28 February 2019 / Published: 5 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors in Health and Disease)
Histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs) counteract with each other to regulate gene expression by altering chromatin structure. Aberrant HDAC activity was reported in many human diseases including wide range of cancers, viral infections, cardiovascular complications, auto-immune diseases and kidney diseases. HDAC inhibitors are small molecules designed to block the malignant activity of HDACs. Chemokines and cytokines control inflammation, immunological and other key biological processes and are shown to be involved in various malignancies. Various HDACs and HDAC inhibitors were reported to regulate chemokines and cytokines. Even though HDAC inhibitors have remarkable anti-tumor activity in hematological cancers, they are not effective in treating many diseases and many patients relapse after treatment. However, the role of HDACs and cytokines in regulating these diseases still remain unclear. Therefore, understanding exact mechanisms and effector functions of HDACs are urgently needed to selectively inhibit them and to establish better a platform to combat various malignancies. In this review, we address regulation of chemokines and cytokines by HDACs and HDAC inhibitors and update on HDAC inhibitors in human diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: HDACs; chemokines; cytokines; HDAC inhibitors; human diseases HDACs; chemokines; cytokines; HDAC inhibitors; human diseases
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gatla, H.R.; Muniraj, N.; Thevkar, P.; Yavvari, S.; Sukhavasi, S.; Makena, M.R. Regulation of Chemokines and Cytokines by Histone Deacetylases and an Update on Histone Decetylase Inhibitors in Human Diseases. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 1110. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20051110

AMA Style

Gatla HR, Muniraj N, Thevkar P, Yavvari S, Sukhavasi S, Makena MR. Regulation of Chemokines and Cytokines by Histone Deacetylases and an Update on Histone Decetylase Inhibitors in Human Diseases. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2019; 20(5):1110. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20051110

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gatla, Himavanth R.; Muniraj, Nethaji; Thevkar, Prashanth; Yavvari, Siddhartha; Sukhavasi, Sahithi; Makena, Monish R. 2019. "Regulation of Chemokines and Cytokines by Histone Deacetylases and an Update on Histone Decetylase Inhibitors in Human Diseases" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 20, no. 5: 1110. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20051110

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