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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(4), 813; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20040813

The Circadian tau Mutation in Casein Kinase 1 Is Part of a Larger Domain That Can Be Mutated to Shorten Circadian Period

Division of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, School of Biological Sciences, University of Missouri—Kansas City, Kansas City, MO 64110, USA
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Received: 31 January 2019 / Revised: 31 January 2019 / Accepted: 11 February 2019 / Published: 14 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetic and Molecular Bases of the Circadian Rhythms)
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Abstract

Drosophila Double-time (DBT) phosphorylates the circadian protein Period (PER). The period-altering mutation tau, identified in hamster casein kinase I (CKIε) and created in Drosophila DBT, has been shown to shorten the circadian period in flies, as it does in hamsters. Since CKI often phosphorylates downstream of previously phosphorylated residues and the tau amino acid binds a negatively charged ion in X-ray crystal structures, this amino acid has been suggested to contribute to a phosphate recognition site for the substrate. Alternatively, the tau amino acid may affect a nuclear localization signal (NLS) with which it interacts. We mutated the residues that were close to or part of the phosphate recognition site or NLS. Flies expressing DBT with mutations of amino acids close to or part of either of these motifs produced a shortening of period, suggesting that a domain, including the phosphate recognition site or the NLS, can be mutated to produce the short period phenotype. Mutation of residues affecting internally placed residues produced a longer period, suggesting that a specific domain on the surface of the kinase might generate an interaction with a substrate or regulator, with short periods produced when the interaction is disrupted. View Full-Text
Keywords: circadian rhythms; PER protein; protein/protein interactions; protein phosphorylation; biological clocks; nuclear localization signal; phosphate recognition circadian rhythms; PER protein; protein/protein interactions; protein phosphorylation; biological clocks; nuclear localization signal; phosphate recognition
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Venkatesan, A.; Fan, J.-Y.; Bouyain, S.; Price, J.L. The Circadian tau Mutation in Casein Kinase 1 Is Part of a Larger Domain That Can Be Mutated to Shorten Circadian Period. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 813.

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