Next Article in Journal
Mini Review/Commentary: Growth Hormone Treatment in Children with Type 1 Diabetes
Next Article in Special Issue
Increased TGF-β and BMP Levels and Improved Chondrocyte-Specific Marker Expression In Vitro under Cartilage-Specific Physiological Osmolarity
Previous Article in Journal
Oxidative-Inflammatory Stress in Immune Cells from Adult Mice with Premature Aging
Previous Article in Special Issue
IL-10 Could Play a Role in the Interrelation between Diabetes Mellitus and Osteoarthritis
Article Menu
Issue 3 (February-1) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(3), 770;

Developmental Transformation and Reduction of Connective Cavities within the Subchondral Bone

Clinic for Trauma Surgery, Orthopaedic Surgery and Plastic Surgery, Universitätsmedizin Göttingen, 37075 Göttingen, Germany
Institute of Biomechanics, Technische Universität Hamburg-Harburg, 21073 Hamburg, Germany
Experimental Surgery and Regenerative Medicine, Department of Trauma Surgery–Campus Innenstadt, Munich University Hospital LMU, 80336 Munich, Germany
Pathology, Universitätsklinikum Hamburg Eppendorf, Hamburg 20251, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work and share the first authorship.
Received: 13 December 2018 / Revised: 4 February 2019 / Accepted: 9 February 2019 / Published: 12 February 2019
Full-Text   |   PDF [1952 KB, uploaded 12 February 2019]   |  
  |   Review Reports


It is widely accepted that the subchondral bone (SCB) plays a crucial role in the physiopathology of osteoarthritis (OA), although its contribution is still debated. Much of the pre-clinical research on the role of SCB is concentrated on comparative evaluations of healthy vs. early OA or early OA vs. advanced OA cases, while neglecting how pure maturation could change the SCB’s microstructure. To assess the transformations of the healthy SCB from young age to early adulthood, we examined the microstructure and material composition of the medial condyle of the femur in calves (three months) and cattle (18 months) for the calcified cartilage (CC) and the subchondral bone plate (SCBP). The entire subchondral zone (SCZ) was significantly thicker in cattle compared to calves, although the proportion of the CC and SCBP thicknesses were relatively constant. The trabecular number (Tb.N.) and the connectivity density (Conn.D) were significantly higher in the deeper region of the SCZ, while the bone volume fraction (BV/TV), and the degree of anisotropy (DA) were more affected by age rather than the region. The mineralization increased within the first 250 µm of the SCZ irrespective of sample type, and became stable thereafter. Cattle exhibited higher mineralization than calves at all depths, with a mean Ca/P ratio of 1.59 and 1.64 for calves and cattle, respectively. Collectively, these results indicate that the SCZ is highly dynamic at early age, and CC is the most dynamic layer of the SCZ. View Full-Text
Keywords: bone histomorphometry; subchondral bone; microcomputed tomography; osteoarthritis; calcified cartilage bone histomorphometry; subchondral bone; microcomputed tomography; osteoarthritis; calcified cartilage

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Taheri, S.; Winkler, T.; Schenk, L.S.; Neuerburg, C.; Baumbach, S.F.; Zustin, J.; Lehmann, W.; Schilling, A.F. Developmental Transformation and Reduction of Connective Cavities within the Subchondral Bone. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 770.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top