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Adverse Effects of Proton Pump Inhibitors—Evidence and Plausibility

1
Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Prinsesse Kristinas gate 3, 7006 Trondheim, Norway
2
Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, St Olav’s Hospital—Trondheim University Hospital, Prinsesse Kristinas gate 1, 7030 Trondheim, Norway
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(20), 5203; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20205203
Received: 28 August 2019 / Revised: 17 October 2019 / Accepted: 18 October 2019 / Published: 21 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Proton-Pump Inhibitors (PPIs))
Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have been increasingly used over the last decades and there are concerns about overuse and the numerous reported side-effects. It is uncertain whether associations between PPI use and potential side effects are causal. However, important evidence from experimental and mechanistic studies that could support a causal relationship may have been underestimated by epidemiologists and meta-analysists. In the current manuscript we review the combined epidemiological and mechanistic evidence of the adverse effects of PPI use. View Full-Text
Keywords: proton pump inhibitors; adverse effects; gastrin; gastric cancer; renal disease; liver disease; fracture risk proton pump inhibitors; adverse effects; gastrin; gastric cancer; renal disease; liver disease; fracture risk
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Fossmark, R.; Martinsen, T.C.; Waldum, H.L. Adverse Effects of Proton Pump Inhibitors—Evidence and Plausibility. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 5203.

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