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Development and Progression of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: The Role of Advanced Glycation End Products

1
Department of Medicine, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne 3084, Australia
2
Mater Institute, University of Queensland, Brisbane 4102, Australia
3
Liver transplant unit, Austin Health, Heidelberg 3084, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(20), 5037; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20205037
Received: 24 July 2019 / Revised: 19 September 2019 / Accepted: 8 October 2019 / Published: 11 October 2019
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) affects up to 30% of the adult population and is now a major cause of liver disease-related premature illness and deaths in the world. Treatment is largely based on lifestyle modification, which is difficult to achieve in most patients. Progression of simple fatty liver or steatosis to its severe form non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and liver fibrosis has been explained by a ‘two-hit hypothesis’. Whilst simple steatosis is considered the first hit, its transformation to NASH may be driven by a second hit. Of several factors that constitute the second hit, advanced glycation end products (AGEs), which are formed when reducing-sugars react with proteins or lipids, have been implicated as major candidates that drive steatosis to NASH via the receptor for AGEs (RAGE). Both endogenous and processed food-derived (exogenous) AGEs can activate RAGE, mainly present on Kupffer cells and hepatic stellate cells, thus propagating NAFLD progression. This review focuses on the pathophysiology of NAFLD with special emphasis on the role of food-derived AGEs in NAFLD progression to NASH and liver fibrosis. Moreover, the effect of dietary manipulation to reduce AGE content in food or the therapies targeting AGE/RAGE pathway on disease progression is also discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: advanced glycation end products; hepatic Kuppfer cells; hepatic stellate cells; non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; oxidative stress; receptor for advanced glycation end products advanced glycation end products; hepatic Kuppfer cells; hepatic stellate cells; non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; oxidative stress; receptor for advanced glycation end products
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Fernando, D.H.; Forbes, J.M.; Angus, P.W.; Herath, C.B. Development and Progression of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: The Role of Advanced Glycation End Products. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 5037.

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