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Probiotics Can Cure Oral Aphthous-Like Ulcers in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients: A Review of the Literature and a Working Hypothesis

1
Department of Biomedicine and Neurosciences and Advanced Diagnostics, University of Palermo, 90127 Palermo, Italy
2
Euro-Mediterranean Institute of Science and Technology (IEMEST), 90139 Palermo, Italy
3
Department of Surgical, Oncological and Stomatological Disciplines, Sector of Oral Medicine, University of Palermo, 90127 Palermo, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(20), 5026; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20205026 (registering DOI)
Received: 18 September 2019 / Revised: 8 October 2019 / Accepted: 10 October 2019 / Published: 11 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Nonmainstream Approach in Science Discoveries)
Dysbiosis has been associated with the onset of several chronic autoimmune or inflammatory pathologies (e.g., inflammatory bowel diseases—IBD), because of its primary role in the establishment of a chronic inflammatory process leading to tissue damage. Inflammatory bowel diseases can even involve areas far away from the gut, such as the extraintestinal manifestations involving the oral cavity with the onset of aphthous-like ulcers (ALU). Studies carried out on animal models have shown that intestinal dysbiosis may be related to the development of autoimmune diseases, even if the mechanisms involved are not yet well known. The aim of this paper is to verify the hypothesis that in inflammatory bowel diseases patients, aphthous-like ulcers are the result of the concomitance of intestinal dysbiosis and other events, e.g., the microtraumas, occurring in the oral mucosa, and that ex adiuvantibus therapy with probiotics can be employed to modify the natural course of the aphthous-like ulcers. View Full-Text
Keywords: microbiota; muco-microbiotic layer; dysbiosis; inflammatory bowel diseases; aphthous-like ulcers; probiotics microbiota; muco-microbiotic layer; dysbiosis; inflammatory bowel diseases; aphthous-like ulcers; probiotics
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Cappello, F.; Rappa, F.; Canepa, F.; Carini, F.; Mazzola, M.; Tomasello, G.; Bonaventura, G.; Giuliana, G.; Leone, A.; Saguto, D.; Scalia, F.; Bucchieri, F.; Fucarino, A.; Campisi, G. Probiotics Can Cure Oral Aphthous-Like Ulcers in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients: A Review of the Literature and a Working Hypothesis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 5026.

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