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Open AccessArticle

Adaptive Radiation from a Chromosomal Perspective: Evidence of Chromosome Set Stability in Cichlid Fishes (Cichlidae: Teleostei) from the Barombi Mbo Lake, Cameroon

1
Laboratory of Fish Genetics, Institute of Animal Physiology and Genetics, Czech Academy of Sciences, 27721 Liběchov, Czech Republic
2
Zoological Institute, University of Basel, 4051 Basel, Switzerland
3
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Ngaoundéré, Ngaoundéré P.O. Box 454, Cameroon
4
Department of Management of Fisheries and Aquatic Ecosystems, University of Douala, Douala P.O. Box 2701, Cameroon
5
Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Charles University in Prague, 12844 Prague, Czech Republic
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(20), 4994; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20204994
Received: 30 August 2019 / Revised: 4 October 2019 / Accepted: 7 October 2019 / Published: 9 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chromosome and Karyotype Variation)
Cichlid fishes are the subject of scientific interest because of their rapid adaptive radiation, resulting in extensive ecological and taxonomic diversity. In this study, we examined 11 morphologically distinct cichlid species endemic to Barombi Mbo, the largest crater lake in western Cameroon, namely Konia eisentrauti, Konia dikume, Myaka myaka, Pungu maclareni, Sarotherodon steinbachi, Sarotherodon lohbergeri, Sarotherodon linnellii, Sarotherodon caroli, Stomatepia mariae, Stomatepia pindu, and Stomatepia mongo. These species supposedly evolved via sympatric ecological speciation from a common ancestor, which colonized the lake no earlier than one million years ago. Here we present the first comparative cytogenetic analysis of cichlid species from Barombi Mbo Lake using both conventional (Giemsa staining, C-banding, and CMA3/DAPI staining) and molecular (fluorescence in situ hybridization with telomeric, 5S, and 28S rDNA probes) methods. We observed stability on both macro and micro-chromosomal levels. The diploid chromosome number was 2n = 44, and the karyotype was invariably composed of three pairs of meta/submetacentric and 19 pairs of subtelo/acrocentric chromosomes in all analysed species, with the same numbers of rDNA clusters and distribution of heterochromatin. The results suggest the evolutionary stability of chromosomal set; therefore, the large-scale chromosomal rearrangements seem to be unlikely associated with the sympatric speciation in Barombi Mbo. View Full-Text
Keywords: karyotype; rDNA; chromosome banding; FISH; adaptive radiation; cytotaxonomy; chromosome stasis; African endemic fishes karyotype; rDNA; chromosome banding; FISH; adaptive radiation; cytotaxonomy; chromosome stasis; African endemic fishes
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Majtánová, Z.; Indermaur, A.; Bitja Nyom, A.R.; Ráb, P.; Musilova, Z. Adaptive Radiation from a Chromosomal Perspective: Evidence of Chromosome Set Stability in Cichlid Fishes (Cichlidae: Teleostei) from the Barombi Mbo Lake, Cameroon. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 4994.

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