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Open AccessReview

Clinical Use and Molecular Action of Corticosteroids in the Pediatric Age

1
University of Trieste, 34137 Trieste, Italy
2
Signal Transduction laboratory, NIEHS, NIH, Department of Health and Human Services, Research Triangle Park, Durham, NC 27709, USA
3
Pediatric Rheumatology, Anna Meyer Children University Hospital, 50139 Florence, Italy
4
Department of Medical Biotechnology, University of Siena, 53100 Siena, Italy
5
University of Florence, 50121 Florence, Italy
6
Department of Dermatology, Anna Meyer Children’s University Hospital, 50139 Florence, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to the manuscript.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(2), 444; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20020444
Received: 23 December 2018 / Revised: 14 January 2019 / Accepted: 15 January 2019 / Published: 21 January 2019
Corticosteroids are the mainstay of therapy for many pediatric disorders and sometimes are life-saving. Both endogenous and synthetic derivatives diffuse across the cell membrane and, by binding to their cognate glucocorticoid receptor, modulate a variety of physiological functions, such as glucose metabolism, immune homeostasis, organ development, and the endocrine system. However, despite their proved and known efficacy, corticosteroids show a lot of side effects, among which growth retardation is of particular concern and specific for pediatric age. The aim of this review is to discuss the mechanism of action of corticosteroids, and how their genomic effects have both beneficial and adverse consequences. We will focus on the use of corticosteroids in different pediatric subspecialties and most common diseases, analyzing the most recent evidence. View Full-Text
Keywords: corticosteroids; systemic corticosteroids; oral steroids; pediatric diseases; side effects; mechanism of actions of glucocorticoids corticosteroids; systemic corticosteroids; oral steroids; pediatric diseases; side effects; mechanism of actions of glucocorticoids
MDPI and ACS Style

Ferrara, G.; Petrillo, M.G.; Giani, T.; Marrani, E.; Filippeschi, C.; Oranges, T.; Simonini, G.; Cimaz, R. Clinical Use and Molecular Action of Corticosteroids in the Pediatric Age. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 444.

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