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Imaging and Molecular Mechanisms of Alzheimer’s Disease: A Review
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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(2), 319; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20020319

Epigenetic Factors in Late-Onset Alzheimer’s Disease: MTHFR and CTH Gene Polymorphisms, Metabolic Transsulfuration and Methylation Pathways, and B Vitamins

1
Department of Neurology, Methodist Neurological Institute, Institute for Academic Medicine Houston Methodist Research Institute, Houston Methodist Hospital, Houston, TX 77030, USA
2
Weill Cornell Medical College, Department of Neurology, Cornell University, New York, NY 10065, USA
3
Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Hospital Universitario Nacional, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Bogotá ZC 57, Colombia
4
David Cabello International Alzheimer Disease Scholarship Fund, Houston Methodist Hospital, Houston, TX77030, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 December 2018 / Revised: 10 January 2019 / Accepted: 11 January 2019 / Published: 14 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Mechanism of Alzheimer's Disease)
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Abstract

DNA methylation and other epigenetic factors are important in the pathogenesis of late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (LOAD). Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene mutations occur in most elderly patients with memory loss. MTHFR is critical for production of S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM), the principal methyl donor. A common mutation (1364T/T) of the cystathionine-γ-lyase (CTH) gene affects the enzyme that converts cystathionine to cysteine in the transsulfuration pathway causing plasma elevation of total homocysteine (tHcy) or hyperhomocysteinemia—a strong and independent risk factor for cognitive loss and AD. Other causes of hyperhomocysteinemia include aging, nutritional factors, and deficiencies of B vitamins. We emphasize the importance of supplementing vitamin B12 (methylcobalamin), vitamin B9 (folic acid), vitamin B6 (pyridoxine), and SAM to patients in early stages of LOAD. View Full-Text
Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; cystathionine-γ-lyase CTH gene; DNA methylation; epigenetics; epigenome-wide association study; methylome; methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase MTHFR gene; nutrition; S-adenosylmethionine; vitamin B complex Alzheimer’s disease; cystathionine-γ-lyase CTH gene; DNA methylation; epigenetics; epigenome-wide association study; methylome; methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase MTHFR gene; nutrition; S-adenosylmethionine; vitamin B complex
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Román, G.C.; Mancera-Páez, O.; Bernal, C. Epigenetic Factors in Late-Onset Alzheimer’s Disease: MTHFR and CTH Gene Polymorphisms, Metabolic Transsulfuration and Methylation Pathways, and B Vitamins. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 319.

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