Next Article in Journal
HIF-1-Dependent Reprogramming of Glucose Metabolic Pathway of Cancer Cells and Its Therapeutic Significance
Previous Article in Journal
Expression Analysis of PIN Genes in Root Tips and Nodules of Lotus japonicus
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(2), 237;

Transcriptome Analysis Reveals the Mechanism of Fluoride Treatment Affecting Biochemical Components in Camellia sinensis

College of Horticulture, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China
Key Laboratory of Photobiology, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 November 2018 / Revised: 2 January 2019 / Accepted: 4 January 2019 / Published: 9 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Plant Sciences)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1688 KB, uploaded 9 January 2019]   |  


Tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze), one of the main crops in China, is high in various bioactive compounds including flavonoids, catechins, caffeine, theanine, and other amino acids. C. sinensis is also known as an accumulator of fluoride (F), and the bioactive compounds are affected by F, however, the mechanism remains unclear. Here, the effects of F treatment on the accumulation of F and major bioactive compounds and gene expression were investigated, revealing the molecular mechanisms affecting the accumulation of bioactive compounds by F treatment. The results showed that F accumulation in tea leaves gradually increased under exogenous F treatments. Similarly, the flavonoid content also increased in the F treatment. In contrast, the polyphenol content, free amino acids, and the total catechins decreased significantly. Special amino acids, such as sulfur-containing amino acids and proline, had the opposite trend of free amino acids. Caffeine was obviously induced by exogenous F, while the theanine content peaked after two day-treatment. These results suggest that the F accumulation and content of bioactive compounds were dramatically affected by F treatment. Furthermore, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) related to the metabolism of main bioactive compounds and amino acids, especially the pivotal regulatory genes of catechins, caffeine, and theanine biosynthesis pathways, were identified and analyzed using high-throughput Illumina RNA-Seq technology and qRT-PCR. The expression of pivotal regulatory genes is consistent with the changes of the main bioactive compounds in C. sinensis leaves, indicating a complicated molecular mechanism for the above findings. Overall, these data provide a reference for exploring the possible molecular mechanism of the accumulation of major bioactive components such as flavonoid, catechins, caffeine, theanine and other amino acids in tea leaves in response to fluoride treatment. View Full-Text
Keywords: Camellia sinensis; fluoride; RNA-Seq; transcriptome; bioactive compounds Camellia sinensis; fluoride; RNA-Seq; transcriptome; bioactive compounds

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Zhu, J.; Pan, J.; Nong, S.; Ma, Y.; Xing, A.; Zhu, X.; Wen, B.; Fang, W.; Wang, Y. Transcriptome Analysis Reveals the Mechanism of Fluoride Treatment Affecting Biochemical Components in Camellia sinensis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 237.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top