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Open AccessArticle

In Vivo Bone Regeneration Induced by a Scaffold of Chitosan/Dicarboxylic Acid Seeded with Human Periodontal Ligament Cells

1
Research Unit on Oral Microbiology and Immunology, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Dentistry, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
2
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
3
Center of Excellence on Petrochemical and Materials Technology, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
4
Bioresources Advanced Materials (B2A), The Petroleum and Petrochemical College, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
5
Department of Oral Cell Biology, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA), University of Amsterdam and VU University Amsterdam, Gustav Mahlerlaan 3004, 1081 LA Amsterdam, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(19), 4883; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20194883
Received: 21 August 2019 / Revised: 25 September 2019 / Accepted: 29 September 2019 / Published: 1 October 2019
Chitosan/dicarboxylic acid (CS/DA) scaffold has been developed as a bone tissue engineering material. This study evaluated a CS/DA scaffold with and without seeded primary human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs) in its capacity to regenerate bone in calvarial defects of mice. The osteogenic differentiation of hPDLCs was analyzed by bone nodule formation and gene expression. In vivo bone regeneration was analyzed in mice calvarial defects. Eighteen mice were divided into 3 groups: one group with empty defects, one group with defects with CS/DA scaffold, and a group with defects with CS/DA scaffold and with hPDLCs. After 6 and 12 weeks, new bone formation was assessed using microcomputed tomography (Micro-CT) and histology. CS/DA scaffold significantly promoted in vitro osteoblast-related gene expression (RUNX2, OSX, COL1, ALP, and OPN) by hPDLCs. Micro-CT revealed that CS/DA scaffolds significantly promoted in vivo bone regeneration both after 6 and 12 weeks (p < 0.05). Histological examination confirmed these findings. New bone formation was observed in defects with CS/DA scaffold; being similar with and without hPDLCs. CS/DA scaffolds can be used as a bone regenerative material with good osteoinductive/osteoconductive properties. View Full-Text
Keywords: chitosan; scaffold; periodontal ligament cells; bone regeneration; calvarial defect chitosan; scaffold; periodontal ligament cells; bone regeneration; calvarial defect
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Sukpaita, T.; Chirachanchai, S.; Suwattanachai, P.; Everts, V.; Pimkhaokham, A.; Ampornaramveth, R.S. In Vivo Bone Regeneration Induced by a Scaffold of Chitosan/Dicarboxylic Acid Seeded with Human Periodontal Ligament Cells. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 4883.

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