Next Article in Journal
The Roles of Sex Hormones in the Course of Atopic Dermatitis
Previous Article in Journal
The Cooperative Induction of CCL4 in Human Monocytic Cells by TNF-α and Palmitate Requires MyD88 and Involves MAPK/NF-κB Signaling Pathways
Previous Article in Special Issue
Can Nrf2 Modulate the Development of Intestinal Fibrosis and Cancer in Inflammatory Bowel Disease?
Open AccessReview

Effect of Hepatitis Viruses on the Nrf2/Keap1-Signaling Pathway and Its Impact on Viral Replication and Pathogenesis

Department of Virology, Paul-Ehrlich-Institut, Paul-Ehrlich-Straβe 51–59, D-63225 Langen, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(18), 4659; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20184659
Received: 29 August 2019 / Revised: 16 September 2019 / Accepted: 17 September 2019 / Published: 19 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Nrf2 Pathway: Regulation, Functions, and Potential Applications)
With respect to their genome and their structure, the human hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are complete different viruses. However, both viruses can cause an acute and chronic infection of the liver that is associated with liver inflammation (hepatitis). For both viruses chronic infection can lead to fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a central role in a variety of chronic inflammatory diseases. In light of this, this review summarizes the impact of both viruses on ROS-generating and ROS-inactivating mechanisms. The focus is on the effect of both viruses on the transcription factor Nrf2 (nuclear factor erythroid 2 (NF-E2)-related factor 2). By binding to its target sequence, the antioxidant response element (ARE), Nrf2 triggers the expression of a variety of cytoprotective genes including ROS-detoxifying enzymes. The review summarizes the literature about the pathways for the modulation of Nrf2 that are deregulated by HBV and HCV and describes the impact of Nrf2 deregulation on the viral life cycle of the respective viruses and the virus-associated pathogenesis. View Full-Text
Keywords: Hepatitis C virus; Hepatits B virus; Nrf2; reactive oxygen species; liver regeneration Hepatitis C virus; Hepatits B virus; Nrf2; reactive oxygen species; liver regeneration
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Bender, D.; Hildt, E. Effect of Hepatitis Viruses on the Nrf2/Keap1-Signaling Pathway and Its Impact on Viral Replication and Pathogenesis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 4659.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop