Next Article in Journal
Use Microfluidic Chips to Study the Phototaxis of Lung Cancer Cells
Next Article in Special Issue
Invariant Natural Killer T-Cells and Total CD1d Restricted Cells Differentially Influence Lipid Metabolism and Atherosclerosis in Low Density Receptor Deficient Mice
Previous Article in Journal
Discontinued Drugs for the Treatment of Cardiovascular Disease from 2016 to 2018
Previous Article in Special Issue
Clinical Trials with Combination of Cytokine-Induced Killer Cells and Dendritic Cells for Cancer Therapy
Open AccessReview

NK Cell Hyporesponsiveness: More Is Not Always Better

by 1,2,* and 1,2,*
CRCINA, CNRS, Inserm, University of Nantes, F-44200 Nantes, France
LabEX IGO, Immuno-Onco-Greffe, Nantes, France
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(18), 4514;
Received: 4 August 2019 / Revised: 30 August 2019 / Accepted: 10 September 2019 / Published: 12 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Killer and NKT Cells)
Natural Killer (NK) cells are a type of cytotoxic lymphocytes that play an important role in the innate immune system. They are of particular interest for their role in elimination of intracellular pathogens, viral infection and tumor cells. As such, numerous strategies are being investigated in order to potentiate their functions. One of these techniques aims at promoting the function of their activating receptors. However, different observations have revealed that providing activation signals could actually be counterproductive and lead to NK cells’ hyporesponsiveness. This phenomenon can occur during the NK cell education process, under pathological conditions, but also after treatment with different agents, including cytokines, that are promising tools to boost NK cell function. In this review, we aim to highlight the different circumstances where NK cells become hyporesponsive and the methods that could be used to restore their functionality. View Full-Text
Keywords: unresponsive; exhaustion; cytokines; cancer; virus; interleukin unresponsive; exhaustion; cytokines; cancer; virus; interleukin
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Frutoso, M.; Mortier, E. NK Cell Hyporesponsiveness: More Is Not Always Better. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 4514.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map

Back to TopTop