Next Article in Journal
From Extraction to Advanced Analytical Methods: The Challenges of Melanin Analysis
Previous Article in Journal
Different Actions of Intracellular Zinc Transporters ZIP7 and ZIP13 Are Essential for Dermal Development
Version is current.

Open AccessArticle

Association between Advanced Glycation End Products, Soluble RAGE Receptor, and Endothelium Dysfunction, Evaluated by Circulating Endothelial Cells and Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Patients with Mild and Resistant Hypertension

1
Department of General Chemistry, Chair of Chemistry and Clinical Biochemistry, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, 60-806 Poznan, Poland
2
Department of Hypertension, Angiology, and Internal Disease, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, 61-848 Poznan, Poland
3
Department of Clinical Immunology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, 60-806 Poznan, Poland
4
Medical Analysis Laboratory Regional Blood Centre, 60-354 Poznan, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(16), 3942; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20163942
Received: 30 June 2019 / Accepted: 6 August 2019 / Published: 13 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Advances in Hypertension)
  |  
PDF [646 KB, uploaded 13 August 2019]
  |     |  

Abstract

The aim of the present study was to evaluate advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and soluble form of receptor RAGE (sRAGE) concentrations as well as the AGEs/sRAGE ratio in mild (MH) and resistant (RH) hypertensive patients in comparison with normotensive individuals. We also evaluated the association between AGEs, sRAGE as well as AGEs/sRAGE ratio and circulating endothelial cells (CECs) and circulating endothelial progenitor cells (CEPCs). The MH group consisted of 30 patients, whereas 30 patients were classified for the RH group. The control group (C) included 25 normotensive volunteers. AGEs and sRAGE were measured using enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The multicolor flow cytometry was used for analysis of CECs and CEPCs. Significantly higher levels of AGEs in RH cohort were observed as compared to C cohort. Furthermore, significantly lower sRAGE levels as well as a higher AGEs/sRAGE ratio were observed between MH and RH cohorts. Significant correlations were found in the MH cohort for sRAGE and CECs, and CEPCs. The elevation of AGEs levels suggests that oxidative modification of proteins occurs in hypertension pathogenesis. The decrease in sRAGE levels and elevation of the AGEs/sRAGE ratio in MH and RH groups may suggest that hypertensive patients are less protected against the side effects of AGEs as a consequence of an insufficient competitive role of sRAGE against the AGEs-RAGE axis. Finally, it may be concluded that the level of AGEs may be an independent predictor of the condition and function of the endothelium. Furthermore, sRAGE may be classified as a potential biomarker of inflammation and endothelium dysfunction. View Full-Text
Keywords: oxidative stress; oxidative modification of proteins; receptor sRAGE; endothelium dysfunction; mild hypertension; resistant hypertension oxidative stress; oxidative modification of proteins; receptor sRAGE; endothelium dysfunction; mild hypertension; resistant hypertension
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Gryszczyńska, B.; Budzyń, M.; Begier-Krasińska, B.; Osińska, A.; Boruczkowski, M.; Kaczmarek, M.; Bukowska, A.; Iskra, M.; Kasprzak, M.P. Association between Advanced Glycation End Products, Soluble RAGE Receptor, and Endothelium Dysfunction, Evaluated by Circulating Endothelial Cells and Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Patients with Mild and Resistant Hypertension. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 3942.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top