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Open AccessArticle

Brazilian Green Propolis Rescues Oxidative Stress-Induced Mislocalization of Claudin-1 in Human Keratinocyte-Derived HaCaT Cells

1
Laboratory of Biochemistry, Department of Biopharmaceutical Sciences, Gifu Pharmaceutical University, Gifu 501-1196, Japan
2
Education Center of Green Pharmaceutical Sciences, Gifu Pharmaceutical University, Gifu 502-8585, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(16), 3869; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20163869
Received: 9 July 2019 / Revised: 7 August 2019 / Accepted: 7 August 2019 / Published: 8 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Tight Junction and Its Proteins: More Than Just a Barrier)
Claudin-1 (CLDN1) is expressed in the tight junction (TJ) of the skin granular layer and acts as a physiological barrier for the paracellular transport of ions and nonionic molecules. Ultraviolet (UV) and oxidative stress may disrupt the TJ barrier, but the mechanism of and protective agents against this effect have not been clarified. We found that UVB and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) caused the internalization of CLDN1 and increased the paracellular permeability of lucifer yellow, a fluorescent marker, in human keratinocyte-derived HaCaT cells. Therefore, the mechanism of mislocalization of CLDN1 and the protective effect of an ethanol extract of Brazilian green propolis (EBGP) were investigated. The UVB- and H2O2-induced decreases in CLDN1 localization were rescued by EBGP. H2O2 decreased the phosphorylation level of CLDN1, which was also rescued by EBGP. Wild-type CLDN1 was distributed in the cytosol after treatment with H2O2, whereas T191E, its H2O2-insensitive phosphorylation-mimicking mutant, was localized at the TJ. Both protein kinase C activator and protein phosphatase 2A inhibitor rescued the H2O2-induced decrease in CLDN1 localization. The tight junctional localization of CLDN1 and paracellular permeability showed a negative correlation. Our results indicate that UVB and H2O2 could induce the elevation of paracellular permeability mediated by the dephosphorylation and mislocalization of CLDN1 in HaCaT cells, which was rescued by EBGP. EBGP and its components may be useful in preventing the destruction of the TJ barrier through UV and oxidative stress. View Full-Text
Keywords: claudin-1; hydrogen peroxide; phosphorylation claudin-1; hydrogen peroxide; phosphorylation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Marunaka, K.; Kobayashi, M.; Shu, S.; Matsunaga, T.; Ikari, A. Brazilian Green Propolis Rescues Oxidative Stress-Induced Mislocalization of Claudin-1 in Human Keratinocyte-Derived HaCaT Cells. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 3869.

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