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Open AccessArticle

Versatile Biomaterial Platform Enriched with Graphene Oxide and Carbon Nanotubes for Multiple Tissue Engineering Applications

1
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Bucharest, 050095 Bucharest, Romania
2
Advanced Polymer Materials Group, University Politehnica of Bucharest, 011061 Bucharest, Romania
3
Molecular Biology and Pathology Research Lab “MolImagex”, University Hospital Bucharest, 050098 Bucharest, Romania
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(16), 3868; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20163868
Received: 27 June 2019 / Revised: 26 July 2019 / Accepted: 5 August 2019 / Published: 8 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials for Soft and Hard Tissue Regeneration)
Carbon-based nanomaterials, such as graphene oxide (GO) or carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are currently used in various medical applications due to their positive influence on biocompatibility, adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation, as well as their contribution to modulating cell behavior in response to nanomaterial substrates. In this context, in this study, novel flexible membranes based on cellulose acetate (CA) enriched with CNT and GO in different percentages were tested for their versatility to be used as substrates for soft or hard tissue engineering (TE), namely, for their ability to support human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) adhesion during adipogenic or osteogenic differentiation. For this purpose, differentiation markers were assessed both at gene and protein levels, while histological staining was performed to show the evolution of the processes in response to CA-CNT-GO substrates. Micro-CT analysis indicated porous morphologies with open and interconnected voids. A slightly lower total porosity was obtained for the samples filled with the highest amount of GO and CNTs, but thicker walls, larger and more uniform pores were obtained, providing beneficial effects on cell behavior and increased mechanical stability. The addition of 1 wt% GO and CNT to the biocomposites enhanced hASCs adhesion and cytoskeleton formation. The evolution of both adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation processes was found to be augmented proportionally to the GO-CNT concentration. In conclusion, CA-CNT-GO biomaterials displayed good properties and versatility as platforms for cell differentiation with potential as future implantable materials in TE applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: cellulose acetate; carbon nanotubes; graphene oxide; human adipose-derived stem cells; micro-CT cellulose acetate; carbon nanotubes; graphene oxide; human adipose-derived stem cells; micro-CT
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ignat, S.-R.; Lazăr, A.D.; Şelaru, A.; Samoilă, I.; Vlăsceanu, G.M.; Ioniţă, M.; Radu, E.; Dinescu, S.; Costache, M. Versatile Biomaterial Platform Enriched with Graphene Oxide and Carbon Nanotubes for Multiple Tissue Engineering Applications. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 3868.

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