(i.e., Chinese thuja) is famous for its lifespan spanning hundreds, and even thousands, of years. Most ancient P. orientalis
populations are widely distributed in China, with accessible historical records, making them valuable genetic resources. In this study, the distribution pattern of ancient P. orientalis
in China was analyzed based on 13 bioclimatic factors. Additionally, a specific-locus amplified fragment (SLAF) sequencing method was applied to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genomes of 100 accessions from 13 populations. The resulting data revealed that the suitable areas for the distribution of ancient P. orientalis
populations were accurately predicted with four main climatic factors. A total of 81,722 SNPs were identified from 461,867 SLAFs for 100 individuals, with an average sequencing depth of 10.11-fold and a Q30 value of 82.75%. The pair-wise genetic distance and genetic differentiation of 13 populations indicated that the BT-T population exhibited the largest divergence from the other populations. A neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree suggested the relationship between many individuals was inconsistent with the geographical location, possibly indicative of a history of transplantation and cultivation. All individuals were clustered into nine genotypes according to a structural analysis and the relationships between individuals were clarified in phylogenetic trees. This study highlights the importance of the de novo genome sequencing of ancient P. orientalis
and may provide the basis for the conservation of P. orientalis
genetic resources, the identification of supergene families, and the evaluation of related genetic resources.
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