Next Article in Journal
Involvement of Lhcb6 and Lhcb5 in Photosynthesis Regulation in Physcomitrella patens Response to Abiotic Stress
Next Article in Special Issue
Novel Biomarkers of Early Atherosclerotic Changes for Personalised Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in Cervical Cancer and Human Papillomavirus Infection
Previous Article in Journal
Additive Pharmacological Interaction between Cisplatin (CDDP) and Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors (HDIs) in MDA-MB-231 Triple Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC) Cells with Altered Notch1 Activity—An Isobolographic Analysis
Previous Article in Special Issue
High Mobility Group Box 1 Mediates TMAO-Induced Endothelial Dysfunction
Open AccessReview

Arterial Stiffness Assessed by Cardio-Ankle Vascular Index

Department of Cardiology, National Defense Medical College, 3-2 Namiki, Tokorozawa, Saitama 359-8513, Japan
Department of Intensive Care Medicine2, National Defense Medical College, 3-2 Namiki, Tokorozawa, Saitama 359-8513, Japan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(15), 3664;
Received: 29 June 2019 / Revised: 21 July 2019 / Accepted: 24 July 2019 / Published: 26 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endothelial Dysfunction: Pathophysiology and Molecular Mechanisms)
Arterial stiffness is an age-related disorder. In the medial layer of arteries, mechanical fracture due to fatigue failure for the pulsatile wall strain causes medial degeneration vascular remodeling. The alteration of extracellular matrix composition and arterial geometry result in structural arterial stiffness. Calcium deposition and other factors such as advanced glycation end product-mediated collagen cross-linking aggravate the structural arterial stiffness. On the other hand, endothelial dysfunction is a cause of arterial stiffness. The biological molecular mechanisms relating to aging are known to involve the progression of arterial stiffness. Arterial stiffness further applies stress on large arteries and also microcirculation. Therefore, it is closely related to adverse outcomes in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular system. Cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) is a promising diagnostic tool for evaluating arterial stiffness. The principle is based on stiffness parameter β, which is an index intended to assess the distensibility of carotid artery. Stiffness parameter β is a two-dimensional technique obtained from changes of arterial diameter by pulse in one section. CAVI applied the stiffness parameter β to all of the arterial segments between heart and ankle using pulse wave velocity. CAVI has been commercially available for a decade and the clinical data of its effectiveness has accumulated. The characteristics of CAVI differ from other physiological tests of arterial stiffness due to the independency from blood pressure at the time of examination. This review describes the pathophysiology of arterial stiffness and CAVI. Molecular mechanisms will also be covered. View Full-Text
Keywords: arterial stiffness; heart failure; endothelial dysfunction; cardio-ankle vascular index arterial stiffness; heart failure; endothelial dysfunction; cardio-ankle vascular index
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Namba, T.; Masaki, N.; Takase, B.; Adachi, T. Arterial Stiffness Assessed by Cardio-Ankle Vascular Index. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 3664.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop