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Novel Biomarkers of Early Atherosclerotic Changes for Personalised Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in Cervical Cancer and Human Papillomavirus Infection

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Department of Physiology, Jessenius Faculty of Medicine in Martin, Comenius University in Bratislava, 03601 Martin, Slovakia
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Biomedical Center Martin, Jessenius Faculty of Medicine in Martin, Comenius University in Bratislava, 03601 Martin, Slovakia
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Pediatric Cardiology Martin, Jessenius Faculty of Medicine in Martin, Comenius University in Bratislava, 03601 Martin, Slovakia
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Department of Biomedical Engineering, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
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Department of Biomedical Engineering, CARIM School for Cardiovascular Diseases, Maastricht University, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands
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Neonatology Clinic, Jessenius Faculty of Medicine in Martin, Comenius University in Bratislava, University Hospital Martin, 03601 Martin, Slovakia
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Gynaecology Clinic, Jessenius Faculty of Medicine in Martin, Comenius University in Bratislava, University Hospital Martin, 03601 Martin, Slovakia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(15), 3720; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20153720
Received: 27 June 2019 / Revised: 18 July 2019 / Accepted: 27 July 2019 / Published: 30 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endothelial Dysfunction: Pathophysiology and Molecular Mechanisms)
Cervical cancer is associated with a causative role of human papillomavirus (HPV), which is a highly prevalent infection. Recently, women with a genital HPV infection were found to have increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), including severe cardiovascular events such as myocardial infarction and stroke. The pathomechanisms of this relation are not yet fully understood, and may significantly affect the health of a large part of the population. Accelerated atherosclerosis is assumed to play a key role in the pathophysiology of this relationship. To identify high-risk groups of the population, it is necessary to stratify the CVD risk. Current algorithms, as widely used for the estimation of CVD risk, seem to be limited by the individual misclassification of high-risk subjects. However, personalised prediction of cardiovascular events is missing. Regarding HPV-related CVD, identification of novel sensitive biomarkers reflecting early atherosclerotic changes could be of major importance for such personalised cardiovascular risk prediction. Therefore, this review focuses on the pathomechanisms leading to HPV-related cardiovascular diseases with respect to atherosclerosis, and the description of potential novel biomarkers to detect the earliest atherosclerotic changes important for the prevention of CVD in HPV infection and cervical cancer. View Full-Text
Keywords: human papillomavirus; cardiovascular disease; arterial stiffness; endothelial function human papillomavirus; cardiovascular disease; arterial stiffness; endothelial function
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Tonhajzerova, I.; Olexova, L.B.; Jurko, A.; Spronck, B.; Jurko, T.; Sekaninova, N.; Visnovcova, Z.; Mestanikova, A.; Kudela, E.; Mestanik, M. Novel Biomarkers of Early Atherosclerotic Changes for Personalised Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in Cervical Cancer and Human Papillomavirus Infection. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 3720.

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