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Article

Non-Cytotoxic Agarose/Hydroxyapatite Composite Scaffolds for Drug Release

1
Department of Natural Sciences, Bonn-Rhein-Sieg University of Applied Sciences, von-Liebig-Str. 20, 53359 Rheinbach, Germany
2
Institute of Organic Chemistry and Macromolecular Chemistry, Center of Excellence of Polysaccharide Research, Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, Humboldtstr. 10, 07743 Jena, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(14), 3565; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20143565
Received: 6 July 2019 / Revised: 18 July 2019 / Accepted: 18 July 2019 / Published: 21 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polysaccharides in Drug Delivery)
Healing of large bone defects requires implants or scaffolds that provide structural guidance for cell growth, differentiation, and vascularization. In the present work, an agarose-hydroxyapatite composite scaffold was developed that acts not only as a 3D matrix, but also as a release system. Hydroxyapatite (HA) was incorporated into the agarose gels in situ in various ratios by a simple procedure consisting of precipitation, cooling, washing, and drying. The resulting gels were characterized regarding composition, porosity, mechanical properties, and biocompatibility. A pure phase of carbonated HA was identified in the scaffolds, which had pore sizes of up to several hundred micrometers. Mechanical testing revealed elastic moduli of up to 2.8 MPa for lyophilized composites. MTT testing on Lw35human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and osteosarcoma MG-63 cells proved the biocompatibility of the scaffolds. Furthermore, scaffolds were loaded with model drug compounds for guided hMSC differentiation. Different release kinetic models were evaluated for adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) and suramin, and data showed a sustained release behavior over four days. View Full-Text
Keywords: bone tissue engineering; agarose; hydroxyapatite; biocomposite; hydrogel; drug release bone tissue engineering; agarose; hydroxyapatite; biocomposite; hydrogel; drug release
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MDPI and ACS Style

Witzler, M.; Ottensmeyer, P.F.; Gericke, M.; Heinze, T.; Tobiasch, E.; Schulze, M. Non-Cytotoxic Agarose/Hydroxyapatite Composite Scaffolds for Drug Release. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 3565. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20143565

AMA Style

Witzler M, Ottensmeyer PF, Gericke M, Heinze T, Tobiasch E, Schulze M. Non-Cytotoxic Agarose/Hydroxyapatite Composite Scaffolds for Drug Release. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2019; 20(14):3565. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20143565

Chicago/Turabian Style

Witzler, Markus, Patrick F. Ottensmeyer, Martin Gericke, Thomas Heinze, Edda Tobiasch, and Margit Schulze. 2019. "Non-Cytotoxic Agarose/Hydroxyapatite Composite Scaffolds for Drug Release" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 20, no. 14: 3565. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20143565

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