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Human DNA Virus Exploitation of the MAPK-ERK Cascade

Department of Molecular and Biomedical Sciences, The University of Maine, Orono, ME 04401, USA
Graduate School in Biomedical Sciences and Engineering, The University of Maine, Orono, ME 04401, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(14), 3427;
Received: 31 May 2019 / Revised: 9 July 2019 / Accepted: 11 July 2019 / Published: 12 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MAPK-ERK Pathway)
PDF [798 KB, uploaded 12 July 2019]


The extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) comprise a particular branch of the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades (MAPK) that transmits extracellular signals into the intracellular environment to trigger cellular growth responses. Similar to other MAPK cascades, the MAPK-ERK pathway signals through three core kinases—Raf, MAPK/ERK kinase (MEK), and ERK—which drive the signaling mechanisms responsible for the induction of cellular responses from extracellular stimuli including differentiation, proliferation, and cellular survival. However, pathogens like DNA viruses alter MAPK-ERK signaling in order to access DNA replication machineries, induce a proliferative state in the cell, or even prevent cell death mechanisms in response to pathogen recognition. Differential utilization of this pathway by multiple DNA viruses highlights the dynamic nature of the MAPK-ERK pathway within the cell and the importance of its function in regulating a wide variety of cellular fates that ultimately influence viral infection and, in some cases, result in tumorigenesis. View Full-Text
Keywords: mitogen-activated protein kinase; viruses; cellular signaling; infection mitogen-activated protein kinase; viruses; cellular signaling; infection

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DuShane, J.K.; Maginnis, M.S. Human DNA Virus Exploitation of the MAPK-ERK Cascade. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 3427.

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