Next Article in Journal
Structure-Based Virtual Screening Allows the Identification of Efficient Modulators of E-Cadherin-Mediated Cell–Cell Adhesion
Previous Article in Journal
Spectroscopic Characterisation of the Naphthalene Dioxygenase from Rhodococcus sp. Strain NCIMB12038
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview

Vaccinations for Colorectal Cancer: Progress, Strategies, and Novel Adjuvants

1
School of Medical Science and Menzies Health Institute Queensland, Gold Coast campus, Griffith University, Southport, QLD 4222, Australia
2
School of Allied Health, Australian Catholic University, Banyo, QLD 4014, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(14), 3403; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20143403
Received: 1 July 2019 / Revised: 9 July 2019 / Accepted: 9 July 2019 / Published: 11 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular and Translational Research on Colorectal Cancer)
  |  
PDF [1016 KB, uploaded 11 July 2019]
  |     |  

Abstract

Although cancer is a leading cause of death, significant breakthroughs have been made in its treatment in recent years. In particular, increasingly effective cancer vaccines are being developed, including some for colorectal cancer. There are also currently a variety of compounds that can act as adjuvants, such as signalling molecules called cytokines. Other adjuvants target and inhibit the specific mechanisms by which cancers evade the immune system. One of them is a galectin inhibitor, which targets galectins—proteins produced by cancer cells that can cause the death of immune cells. Likewise, immune checkpoint inhibitors affect immune checkpoints—natural host proteins that usually control inflammation but can be exploited by cancers to weaken the body’s defences. Equally, regulatory T cells may contribute to the progression of cancer by inhibiting the functions of other T cells. The main advantages of cancer vaccines include their low toxicity and their ability to strengthen the immune system. Nevertheless, significant limitations include their slow effects and their inability to treat cancer at times due to immunosuppression. Ultimately, ongoing trials provide hope for the development of more effective methods of immunotherapeutic inoculation that can target a greater variety of cancers. View Full-Text
Keywords: cancer vaccine; adjuvant; cytokine; galectin inhibitor; colorectal cancer; immune checkpoint inhibitor; regulatory T cell; immunotherapy cancer vaccine; adjuvant; cytokine; galectin inhibitor; colorectal cancer; immune checkpoint inhibitor; regulatory T cell; immunotherapy
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Jiang, S.; Good, D.; Wei, M.Q. Vaccinations for Colorectal Cancer: Progress, Strategies, and Novel Adjuvants. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 3403.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top