Next Article in Journal
Ethanol-Induced Autophagy in Sertoli Cells Is Specifically Marked at Androgen-Dependent Stages of the Spermatogenic Cycle: Potential Mechanisms and Implications
Next Article in Special Issue
Interplay among Vaginal Microbiome, Immune Response and Sexually Transmitted Viral Infections
Previous Article in Journal
Comparison between Polybutylcyanoacrylate Nanoparticles with Either Surface-Adsorbed or Encapsulated Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor on the Neural Differentiation of iPSCs
Previous Article in Special Issue
I’ve Gut A Feeling: Microbiota Impacting the Conceptual and Experimental Perspectives of Personalized Medicine
Article Menu
Issue 1 (January-1) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview

Bacteriocins and Bacteriophages: Therapeutic Weapons for Gastrointestinal Diseases?

Istituto di Patologia Speciale Medica, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, 00168 Roma, Italy
UOC Medicina Interna E Gastroenterologia, Area Gastroenterologia ed Oncologia Medica, Dipartimento di Scienze Gastroenterologiche, Endocrino-Metaboliche e Nefro-Urologiche, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, 00168 Roma, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(1), 183;
Received: 8 December 2018 / Revised: 20 December 2018 / Accepted: 28 December 2018 / Published: 6 January 2019
PDF [232 KB, uploaded 6 January 2019]


Bacteriocins are bactericidal peptides, ribosomally synthesized, with an inhibitory activity against diverse groups of undesirable microorganisms. Bacteriocins are produced by both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, and to a lesser extent by some archaea. Bacteriophages are viruses that are able to infect bacterial cells and force them to produce viral components, using a lytic or lysogenic cycle. They constitute a large community in the human gut called the phageome, the most abundant part of the gut virome. Bacteriocins and bacteriophages may have an influence on both human health and diseases, thanks to their ability to modulate the gut microbiota and regulate the competitive relationship among the different microorganisms, strains and cells living in the human intestine. In this review, we explore the role of bacteriocins and bacteriophages in the most frequent gastrointestinal diseases by dissecting their interaction with the complex environment of the human gut, analyzing a possible link with extra-intestinal diseases, and speculating on their possible therapeutic application with the end goal of promoting gut health. View Full-Text
Keywords: bacteriocins; bacteriophages; antibiotics; gastrointestinal diseases; dysbiosis; gut barrier; gut microbiota; virus bacteriocins; bacteriophages; antibiotics; gastrointestinal diseases; dysbiosis; gut barrier; gut microbiota; virus
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Lopetuso, L.R.; Giorgio, M.E.; Saviano, A.; Scaldaferri, F.; Gasbarrini, A.; Cammarota, G. Bacteriocins and Bacteriophages: Therapeutic Weapons for Gastrointestinal Diseases? Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 183.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top