The growing prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the U.S. and even worldwide is becoming a serious health problem and economic burden. MetS has become a crucial risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The rising rates of CVD and diabetes, which are the two leading causes of death, simultaneously exist. To prevent the progression of MetS to diabetes and CVD, we have to understand how MetS occurs and how it progresses. Too many causative factors interact with each other, making the investigation and treatment of metabolic syndrome a very complex issue. Recently, a number of studies were conducted to investigate mechanisms and interventions of MetS, from different aspects. In this review, the proposed and demonstrated mechanisms of MetS pathogenesis are discussed and summarized. More importantly, different interventions are discussed, so that health practitioners can have a better understanding of the most recent research progress and have available references for their daily practice.
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