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Extracellular Vesicles in Bladder Cancer: Biomarkers and Beyond

1
Department of Urology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
2
Department of Pathology and Lab Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(9), 2822; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19092822
Received: 30 July 2018 / Revised: 12 September 2018 / Accepted: 15 September 2018 / Published: 18 September 2018
Tumor-derived extracellular vesicles (TEVs) are membrane-bound, nanosized vesicles released by cancer cells and taken up by cells in the tumor microenvironment to modulate the molecular makeup and behavior of recipient cells. In this report, we summarize the pivotal roles of TEVs involved in bladder cancer (BC) development, progression and treatment resistance through transferring their bioactive cargos, including proteins and nucleic acids. We also report on the molecular profiling of TEV cargos derived from urine and blood of BC patients as non-invasive disease biomarkers. The current hurdles in EV research and plausible solutions are discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: extracellular vesicle; exosome; bladder cancer; biomarkers extracellular vesicle; exosome; bladder cancer; biomarkers
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MDPI and ACS Style

Liu, Y.-R.; Ortiz-Bonilla, C.J.; Lee, Y.-F. Extracellular Vesicles in Bladder Cancer: Biomarkers and Beyond. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 2822.

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