Gestational Diabetes Alters the Metabolomic Profile in 2nd Trimester Amniotic Fluid in a Sex-Specific Manner
AbstractMaternal diabetes and obesity induce marked abnormalities in glucose homeostasis and insulin secretion in the fetus, and are linked to obesity, diabetes, and metabolic disease in the offspring, with specific metabolic characterization based on offspring sex. Gestational diabetes (GDM) has profound effects on the intrauterine milieu, which may reflect and/or modulate the function of the maternal–fetal unit. In order to characterize metabolic factors that affect offspring development, we profiled the metabolome of second trimester amniotic fluid (AF) from women who were subsequently diagnosed with gestational diabetes (GDM) using a targeted metabolomics approach, profiling 459 known biochemicals through gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) assays. Using a nested case-control study design, we identified 69 total biochemicals altered by GDM exposure, while sex-specific analysis identified 44 and 58 metabolites in male and female offspring, respectively. The most significant changes were in glucose, amino acid, glutathione, fatty acid, sphingolipid, and bile acid metabolism with specific changes identified based on the offspring sex. Targeted isotope dilution LC/MS confirmatory assays measured significant changes in docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid. We conclude that the sex-specific alterations in GDM maternal–fetal metabolism may begin to explain the sex-specific metabolic outcomes seen in offspring exposed to GDM in utero. View Full-Text
- Supplementary File 1:
ZIP-Document (ZIP, 163 KB)
Share & Cite This Article
O’Neill, K.; Alexander, J.; Azuma, R.; Xiao, R.; Snyder, N.W.; Mesaros, C.A.; Blair, I.A.; Pinney, S.E. Gestational Diabetes Alters the Metabolomic Profile in 2nd Trimester Amniotic Fluid in a Sex-Specific Manner. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 2696.
O’Neill K, Alexander J, Azuma R, Xiao R, Snyder NW, Mesaros CA, Blair IA, Pinney SE. Gestational Diabetes Alters the Metabolomic Profile in 2nd Trimester Amniotic Fluid in a Sex-Specific Manner. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2018; 19(9):2696.Chicago/Turabian Style
O’Neill, Kathleen; Alexander, Jacqueline; Azuma, Rikka; Xiao, Rui; Snyder, Nathaniel W.; Mesaros, Clementina A.; Blair, Ian A.; Pinney, Sara E. 2018. "Gestational Diabetes Alters the Metabolomic Profile in 2nd Trimester Amniotic Fluid in a Sex-Specific Manner." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 19, no. 9: 2696.
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.