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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(8), 2366; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19082366

Repair of Damaged Articular Cartilage: Current Approaches and Future Directions

1
Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Sechenov University, 8-2 Trubetskaya St., Moscow 119991, Russia
2
Department of Trauma, Orthopedics and Disaster Surgery, Sechenov University, 8-2 Trubetskaya St., Moscow 119991, Russia
3
Department of Polymers and Composites, N. N. Semenov Institute of Chemical Physics, 4 Kosygin St., Moscow 119991, Russia
4
Institute of Photonic Technologies, Research Center “Crystallography and Photonics”, RAS, 2 Pionerskaya St., Troitsk, Moscow 142190, Russia
5
Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Biomedicum 6D, Stockholm 17177, Sweden
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 June 2018 / Revised: 7 August 2018 / Accepted: 7 August 2018 / Published: 11 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Basis of Musculoskeletal Regeneration)
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Abstract

Articular hyaline cartilage is extensively hydrated, but it is neither innervated nor vascularized, and its low cell density allows only extremely limited self-renewal. Most clinical and research efforts currently focus on the restoration of cartilage damaged in connection with osteoarthritis or trauma. Here, we discuss current clinical approaches for repairing cartilage, as well as research approaches which are currently developing, and those under translation into clinical practice. We also describe potential future directions in this area, including tissue engineering based on scaffolding and/or stem cells as well as a combination of gene and cell therapy. Particular focus is placed on cell-based approaches and the potential of recently characterized chondro-progenitors; progress with induced pluripotent stem cells is also discussed. In this context, we also consider the ability of different types of stem cell to restore hyaline cartilage and the importance of mimicking the environment in vivo during cell expansion and differentiation into mature chondrocytes. View Full-Text
Keywords: articular hyaline cartilage; regenerative medicine approaches; stem cells; tissue-engineered constructs; cell-based therapy; micro-fracture; mosaicplasty; autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI); matrix-induced autologous chondrocyte implantation (MACI) articular hyaline cartilage; regenerative medicine approaches; stem cells; tissue-engineered constructs; cell-based therapy; micro-fracture; mosaicplasty; autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI); matrix-induced autologous chondrocyte implantation (MACI)
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Medvedeva, E.V.; Grebenik, E.A.; Gornostaeva, S.N.; Telpuhov, V.I.; Lychagin, A.V.; Timashev, P.S.; Chagin, A.S. Repair of Damaged Articular Cartilage: Current Approaches and Future Directions. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 2366.

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