Next Article in Journal
The Winding Roadmap of Biomarkers Toward Clinic: Lessons from Predictors of Resistance to Anti-EGFRs in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer
Previous Article in Journal
Pan-Cancer Analysis Reveals Differential Susceptibility of Bidirectional Gene Promoters to DNA Methylation, Somatic Mutations, and Copy Number Alterations
Article Menu
Issue 8 (August) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(8), 2297;

The Protein Phosphatase PPM1G Destabilizes HIF-1α Expression

Department of Biomedical Science, Graduate School, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Korea
Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Korea
Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 June 2018 / Revised: 23 July 2018 / Accepted: 1 August 2018 / Published: 5 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
Full-Text   |   PDF [2782 KB, uploaded 5 August 2018]   |  


Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) are key regulators of hypoxic responses, and their stability and transcriptional activity are controlled by several kinases. However, the regulation of HIF by protein phosphatases has not been thoroughly investigated. Here, we found that overexpression of Mg2+/Mn2+-dependent protein phosphatase 1 gamma (PPM1G), one of Ser/Thr protein phosphatases, downregulated protein expression of ectopic HIF-1α under normoxic or acute hypoxic conditions. In addition, the deficiency of PPM1G upregulated protein expression of endogenous HIF-1α under normoxic or acute oxidative stress conditions. PPM1G decreased expression of HIF-1α via the proteasomal pathway. PPM1G-mediated HIF-1α degradation was dependent on prolyl hydroxylase (PHD), but independent of von Hippel-Lindau (VHL). These data suggest that PPM1G is critical for the control of HIF-1α-dependent responses. View Full-Text
Keywords: HIF-1α; PPM1G; hypoxia; normoxia HIF-1α; PPM1G; hypoxia; normoxia

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Pyo, J.; Ryu, J.; Kim, W.; Choi, J.-S.; Jeong, J.-W.; Kim, J.-E. The Protein Phosphatase PPM1G Destabilizes HIF-1α Expression. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 2297.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top