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Early Hyperbaric Oxygen Treatment Attenuates Burn-Induced Neuroinflammation by Inhibiting the Galectin-3-Dependent Toll-Like Receptor-4 Pathway in a Rat Model

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Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, College of Health Sciences, Kaohsiung Medical University, 807 Kaohsiung, Taiwan
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School of Post-Baccalaureate Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, 807 Kaohsiung, Taiwan
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Department of Anesthesiology, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, 807 Kaohsiung, Taiwan
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Department of Anesthesiology, Kaohsiung Municipal Hsiao-Kang Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, 807 Kaohsiung, Taiwan
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Graduate Institute of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, 807 Kaohsiung, Taiwan
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Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, 807 Kaohsiung, Taiwan
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Department of Medical Research, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, 807 Kaohsiung, Taiwan
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Orthopaedic Research Center, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, 807 Kaohsiung, Taiwan
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Division of Plastic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 807 Kaohsiung, Taiwan
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Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, 807 Kaohsiung, Taiwan
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Department of Pathology, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, 807 Kaohsiung, Taiwan
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Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy Room, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, 807 Kaohsiung, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(8), 2195; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19082195
Received: 6 July 2018 / Revised: 22 July 2018 / Accepted: 25 July 2018 / Published: 27 July 2018
Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment has been proven to decrease neuroinflammation in rats. This study aimed to determine the potential mechanism underlying the anti-inflammatory effects of HBO treatment on burn-induced neuroinflammation in rats. Thirty-six adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly assigned to the following six groups (n = 6 per group): (1) sham burn with sham HBO treatment; (2) sham burn with HBO treatment; (3) burn with one-week sham HBO treatment; (4) burn with two-week sham HBO treatment; (5) burn with one-week HBO treatment; and (6) burn with two-week HBO treatment. SD rats that received third-degree burn injury were used as a full-thickness burn injury model. Subsequently, we analyzed the expression of proteins involved in the galectin-3 (Gal-3)-dependent Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) pathway through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis, and Western blotting. A behavior test was also conducted, which revealed that HBO treatment significantly suppressed mechanical hypersensitivity in the burn with HBO treatment group compared to the burn with sham HBO treatment group (p < 0.05). ELISA results showed that tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) levels in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord and the skin significantly decreased in the burn with HBO treatment group compared with the burn with sham HBO treatment group (p < 0.05). Western blotting results demonstrated that HBO treatment significantly reduced the expression of Gal-3 and TLR-4 in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord in the burn with HBO treatment group compared with the burn with sham HBO treatment group (p < 0.05). IHC analysis showed that the expression of Gal-3, TLR-4, CD68 and CD45 in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord was significantly lower in the burn with HBO treatment group than in the burn with sham HBO treatment group (p < 0.05), and the expression of CD68 and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in the right hind paw skin was significantly lower. The expression of vimentin and fibroblast growth factor in the right hind paw skin was significantly higher after HBO treatment (p < 0.05). This study proved that early HBO treatment relieves neuropathic pain, inhibits the Gal-3-dependent TLR-4 pathway, and suppresses microglia and macrophage activation in a rat model. View Full-Text
Keywords: hyperbaric oxygen; neuroinflammation; burn; galectin-3; toll-like receptor-4 hyperbaric oxygen; neuroinflammation; burn; galectin-3; toll-like receptor-4
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Wu, Z.-S.; Lo, J.-J.; Wu, S.-H.; Wang, C.-Z.; Chen, R.-F.; Lee, S.-S.; Chai, C.-Y.; Huang, S.-H. Early Hyperbaric Oxygen Treatment Attenuates Burn-Induced Neuroinflammation by Inhibiting the Galectin-3-Dependent Toll-Like Receptor-4 Pathway in a Rat Model. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 2195.

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