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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(7), 1826; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19071826

Unusual Manifestation of Live Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Corynebacterium urinapleomorphum, and Helicobacter pylori in the Gallbladder with Cholecystitis

1
Division of Microbiology, Department of Biology, Friedrich Alexander Universität Erlangen/Nuremberg, Staudtstraße 5, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany
2
Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences, University of Vermont Extension, South Burlington, VT 05405, USA
3
Institute for Pathology, Klinikum Bayreuth, 95445 Bayreuth, Germany
4
Central Facility for Microscopy, Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany
5
Department of Surgery, University Hospital Erlangen, Krankenhausstraße 12, D-91054 Erlangen, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 April 2018 / Revised: 8 June 2018 / Accepted: 15 June 2018 / Published: 21 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Helicobacter pylori Research)
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Abstract

Culture-independent studies have identified DNA of bacterial pathogens in the gallbladder under pathological conditions, yet reports on the isolation of corresponding live bacteria are rare. Thus, it is unclear which pathogens, or pathogen communities, can colonize the gallbladder and cause disease. Using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, culture techniques, phylogenetic analysis, urease assays and Western blotting, we investigated the presence of live bacterial communities in the gallbladder of a cholecystitis patient after cholecystectomy. 16S rRNA gene sequencing of isolated bacterial colonies revealed the presence of pathogens most closely resembling Corynebacterium urinapleomorphum nov. sp., Staphylococcus saprophyticus and Helicobacter pylori. The latter colonies were confirmed as H. pylori by immunohistochemistry and biochemical methods. H. pylori cultured from the gallbladder exhibited both the same DNA fingerprinting and Western cagA gene sequence with ABC-type EPIYA (Glu-Pro-Ile-Tyr-Ala) phosphorylation motifs as isolates recovered from the gastric mucus of the same patient, suggesting that gastric H. pylori can also colonize other organs in the human body. Taken together, here we report, for the first time, the identification and characterization of a community consisting of live S. saprophyticus; C. urinapleomorphum, and H. pylori in the gallbladder of a patient with acute cholecystitis. Their potential infection routes and roles in pathogenesis are discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: gallbladder; cholecystitis; immunohistochemistry; electron microscopy; Helicobacter pylori; Staphylococcus saprophyticus; Corynebacterium urinapleomorphum; protein profiling; 16S rRNA gene sequencing; urease test; CagA; EPIYA; GGT; HtrA gallbladder; cholecystitis; immunohistochemistry; electron microscopy; Helicobacter pylori; Staphylococcus saprophyticus; Corynebacterium urinapleomorphum; protein profiling; 16S rRNA gene sequencing; urease test; CagA; EPIYA; GGT; HtrA
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Backert, S.; Tegtmeyer, N.; Oyarzabal, O.A.; Osman, D.; Rohde, M.; Grützmann, R.; Vieth, M. Unusual Manifestation of Live Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Corynebacterium urinapleomorphum, and Helicobacter pylori in the Gallbladder with Cholecystitis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 1826.

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