Polysialic Acid in Human Plasma Can Compensate the Cytotoxicity of Histones
AbstractThe innate immune system has numerous mechanisms to fight against pathogens, including the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). By spreading out chromatin, antimicrobial peptides and enzymes, neutrophils efficiently trap pathogens like bacteria and facilitate their elimination. During this process, high concentrations of extracellular histones can be reached. Several researchers have demonstrated that the cytotoxic characteristics of these histones can trigger diseases like sepsis. Interestingly, the carbohydrate polysialic acid (polySia) can bind histones and reduce histone-mediated cytotoxicity in a chain length-dependent manner. In the present study, we examined the chain length of polySia in plasma and tested its ability to decrease the cytotoxic characteristics of extracellular histones. Remarkably, we detected polySia not only in the soluble fraction of plasma, but also on enriched extracellular vesicles (EVs). Chain length analysis revealed that polySia chains originating from human plasma can consists of more than 40 sialic acid residues and show a cytoprotective effect against extracellular histones. Intriguingly, polySia is not only present in human plasma but also in fish and other branches of vertebrates. Thus, polySia is a physiological element in plasma and may represent a natural buffer for extracellular histones. View Full-Text
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Zlatina, K.; Saftenberger, M.; Kühnle, A.; Galuska, C.E.; Gärtner, U.; Rebl, A.; Oster, M.; Vernunft, A.; Galuska, S.P. Polysialic Acid in Human Plasma Can Compensate the Cytotoxicity of Histones. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 1679.
Zlatina K, Saftenberger M, Kühnle A, Galuska CE, Gärtner U, Rebl A, Oster M, Vernunft A, Galuska SP. Polysialic Acid in Human Plasma Can Compensate the Cytotoxicity of Histones. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2018; 19(6):1679.Chicago/Turabian Style
Zlatina, Kristina; Saftenberger, Max; Kühnle, Andrea; Galuska, Christina E.; Gärtner, Ulrich; Rebl, Alexander; Oster, Michael; Vernunft, Andreas; Galuska, Sebastian P. 2018. "Polysialic Acid in Human Plasma Can Compensate the Cytotoxicity of Histones." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 19, no. 6: 1679.
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