Next Article in Journal
The Role of High-Density Lipoproteins in Diabetes and Its Vascular Complications
Previous Article in Journal
Niemann-Pick Type C2 Protein Regulates Free Cholesterol Accumulation and Influences Hepatic Stellate Cell Proliferation and Mitochondrial Respiration Function
Article Menu
Issue 6 (June) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(6), 1679; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19061679

Polysialic Acid in Human Plasma Can Compensate the Cytotoxicity of Histones

1
Institute of Reproductive Biology, Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology (FBN), Wilhelm-Stahl-Allee 2, 18196 Dummerstorf, Germany
2
Institute of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Justus-Liebig-University, Friedrichstr. 24, 35392 Giessen, Germany
3
Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Justus-Liebig-University, Aulweg 123, 35385 Giessen, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 May 2018 / Revised: 28 May 2018 / Accepted: 29 May 2018 / Published: 5 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1952 KB, uploaded 5 June 2018]   |  

Abstract

The innate immune system has numerous mechanisms to fight against pathogens, including the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). By spreading out chromatin, antimicrobial peptides and enzymes, neutrophils efficiently trap pathogens like bacteria and facilitate their elimination. During this process, high concentrations of extracellular histones can be reached. Several researchers have demonstrated that the cytotoxic characteristics of these histones can trigger diseases like sepsis. Interestingly, the carbohydrate polysialic acid (polySia) can bind histones and reduce histone-mediated cytotoxicity in a chain length-dependent manner. In the present study, we examined the chain length of polySia in plasma and tested its ability to decrease the cytotoxic characteristics of extracellular histones. Remarkably, we detected polySia not only in the soluble fraction of plasma, but also on enriched extracellular vesicles (EVs). Chain length analysis revealed that polySia chains originating from human plasma can consists of more than 40 sialic acid residues and show a cytoprotective effect against extracellular histones. Intriguingly, polySia is not only present in human plasma but also in fish and other branches of vertebrates. Thus, polySia is a physiological element in plasma and may represent a natural buffer for extracellular histones. View Full-Text
Keywords: polysialic acid; plasma; histone; neutrophil extracellular traps; NETs polysialic acid; plasma; histone; neutrophil extracellular traps; NETs
Figures

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Zlatina, K.; Saftenberger, M.; Kühnle, A.; Galuska, C.E.; Gärtner, U.; Rebl, A.; Oster, M.; Vernunft, A.; Galuska, S.P. Polysialic Acid in Human Plasma Can Compensate the Cytotoxicity of Histones. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 1679.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top