The cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-responsive element-binding protein H (CREBH, encoded by CREB3L3) is a membrane-bound transcriptional factor that primarily localizes in the liver and small intestine. CREBH governs triglyceride metabolism in the liver, which mediates the changes in gene expression governing fatty acid oxidation, ketogenesis, and apolipoproteins related to lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activation. CREBH in the small intestine reduces cholesterol transporter gene Npc1l1
and suppresses cholesterol absorption from diet. A deficiency of CREBH in mice leads to severe hypertriglyceridemia, fatty liver, and atherosclerosis. CREBH, in synergy with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), has a crucial role in upregulating Fgf21
expression, which is implicated in metabolic homeostasis including glucose and lipid metabolism. CREBH binds to and functions as a co-activator for both PPARα and liver X receptor alpha (LXRα) in regulating gene expression of lipid metabolism. Therefore, CREBH has a crucial role in glucose and lipid metabolism in the liver and small intestine.
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