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Epigenetic Programming of Synthesis, Release, and/or Receptor Expression of Common Mediators Participating in the Risk/Resilience for Comorbid Stress-Related Disorders and Coronary Artery Disease

Department of Psychiatry, Instituto Nacional de Cardiología “Ignacio Chávez”, Ciudad de México 14080, Mexico
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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(4), 1224; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19041224
Received: 13 March 2018 / Revised: 9 April 2018 / Accepted: 16 April 2018 / Published: 18 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epigenetics of Neurodevelopmental Disorders)
Corticotrophin releasing factor, vasopressin, oxytocin, natriuretic hormones, angiotensin, neuregulins, some purinergic substances, and some cytokines contribute to the long-term modulation and restructuring of cardiovascular regulation networks and, at the same time, have relevance in situations of comorbid abnormal stress responses. The synthesis, release, and receptor expression of these mediators seem to be under epigenetic control since early stages of life, possibly underlying the comorbidity to coronary artery disease (CAD) and stress-related disorders (SRD). The exposure to environmental conditions, such as stress, during critical periods in early life may cause epigenetic programming modifying the development of pathways that lead to stable and long-lasting alterations in the functioning of these mediators during adulthood, determining the risk of or resilience to CAD and SRD. However, in contrast to genetic information, epigenetic marks may be dynamically altered throughout the lifespan. Therefore, epigenetics may be reprogrammed if the individual accepts the challenge to undertake changes in their lifestyle. Alternatively, epigenetics may remain fixed and/or even be inherited in the next generation. In this paper, we analyze some of the common neuroendocrine functions of these mediators in CAD and SRD and summarize the evidence indicating that they are under early programming to put forward the theoretical hypothesis that the comorbidity of these diseases might be epigenetically programmed and modified over the lifespan of the individual. View Full-Text
Keywords: stress related disorder; anxiety; cardiovascular disease; coronary artery disease; programming; reprogramming; epigenetics; chemical mediators stress related disorder; anxiety; cardiovascular disease; coronary artery disease; programming; reprogramming; epigenetics; chemical mediators
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Zapata-Martín del Campo, C.M.; Martínez-Rosas, M.; Guarner-Lans, V. Epigenetic Programming of Synthesis, Release, and/or Receptor Expression of Common Mediators Participating in the Risk/Resilience for Comorbid Stress-Related Disorders and Coronary Artery Disease. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 1224.

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