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The Vast Complexity of the Epigenetic Landscape during Neurodevelopment: An Open Frame to Understanding Brain Function

Laboratory for Neuroscience of Mental Disorders Elena Pessino, Canis Majoris Foundation, Madrid Scientific Park, 28049 Madrid, Spain
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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(5), 1333; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19051333
Received: 3 April 2018 / Revised: 16 April 2018 / Accepted: 26 April 2018 / Published: 1 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epigenetics of Neurodevelopmental Disorders)
Development is a well-defined stage-to-stage process that allows the coordination and maintenance of the structure and function of cells and their progenitors, in a complete organism embedded in an environment that, in turn, will shape cellular responses to external stimuli. Epigenetic mechanisms comprise a group of process that regulate genetic expression without changing the DNA sequence, and they contribute to the necessary plasticity of individuals to face a constantly changing medium. These mechanisms act in conjunction with genetic pools and their correct interactions will be crucial to zygote formation, embryo development, and brain tissue organization. In this work, we will summarize the main findings related to DNA methylation and histone modifications in embryonic stem cells and throughout early development phases. Furthermore, we will critically outline some key observations on how epigenetic mechanisms influence the rest of the developmental process and how long its footprint is extended from fecundation to adulthood. View Full-Text
Keywords: epigenetic; development; neuroepigenome; DNA methylation; histone modifications; brain epigenetic; development; neuroepigenome; DNA methylation; histone modifications; brain
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Cariaga-Martínez, A.E.; Gutiérrez, K.J.; Alelú-Paz, R. The Vast Complexity of the Epigenetic Landscape during Neurodevelopment: An Open Frame to Understanding Brain Function. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 1333.

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