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Open AccessReview

Mechanisms of ATP Release by Inflammatory Cells

1
Department for Visceral Surgery and Medicine, Bern University Hospital, University of Bern, CH-3010 Bern, Switzerland
2
Department for BioMedical Research (DBMR), Bern University Hospital, University of Bern, CH-3008 Bern, Switzerland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(4), 1222; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19041222
Received: 10 March 2018 / Revised: 2 April 2018 / Accepted: 5 April 2018 / Published: 18 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Purinergic Signalling in Cancer and Inflammation)
Extracellular nucleotides (e.g., ATP, ADP, UTP, UDP) released by inflammatory cells interact with specific purinergic P2 type receptors to modulate their recruitment and activation. The focus of this review is on stimuli and mechanisms of extracellular nucleotide release and its consequences during inflammation. Necrosis leads to non-specific release of nucleotides, whereas specific release mechanisms include vesicular exocytosis and channel-mediated release via connexin or pannexin hemichannels. These release mechanisms allow stimulated inflammatory cells such as macrophages, neutrophils, and endothelial cells to fine-tune autocrine/paracrine responses during acute and chronic inflammation. Key effector functions of inflammatory cells are therefore regulated by purinergic signaling in acute and chronic diseases, making extracellular nucleotide release a promising target for the development of new therapies. View Full-Text
Keywords: ATP release; extracellular nucleotides; purinergic signaling; inflammation; monocytes/macrophages; neutrophils; endothelial cells; non-specific nucleotide release; vesicular exocytosis; connexins; pannexins ATP release; extracellular nucleotides; purinergic signaling; inflammation; monocytes/macrophages; neutrophils; endothelial cells; non-specific nucleotide release; vesicular exocytosis; connexins; pannexins
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MDPI and ACS Style

Dosch, M.; Gerber, J.; Jebbawi, F.; Beldi, G. Mechanisms of ATP Release by Inflammatory Cells. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 1222.

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