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Proinflammatory Markers, Chemokines, and Enkephalin in Patients Suffering from Dry Eye Disease

Department of Ophthalmology III, Quinze-Vingts National Ophthalmology Hospital, F-75012 Paris, France
Quinze-Vingts National Ophthalmology Hospital, DHU Sight Restore, INSERM-DGOS CIC 1423, F-75012 Paris, France
Sorbonne Université, INSERM, CNRS, Institut de la Vision, F-75012 Paris, France
Department of Ophthalmology, Ambroise Paré Hospital, APHP, University of Versailles Saint-Quentin en Yvelines, F-92100 Boulogne-Billancourt, France
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(4), 1221;
Received: 16 February 2018 / Revised: 9 April 2018 / Accepted: 12 April 2018 / Published: 17 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pain and Inflammation)
Dry eye symptoms are among the leading complaints in ophthalmology. Dry eye disease (DED) is associated with significant pain affecting quality of life. Cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying ocular pain associated with DED are not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the ocular surface of patients with DED using in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) to quantify corneal nerve density and its relation with corneal inflammation. Gene expression of the proinflammatory markers HLA-DR, IL-6, CXCL12, and CCL2 and the receptors CXCR4 and CCR2, as well as PENK (enkephalin precursor), was therefore quantified in conjunctival impression cytology specimens. Thirty-two patients with DED and 15 age-matched controls were included. Subbasal nerve density was significantly lower in DED patients compared to controls. IVCM analysis revealed that DED patients had a significantly higher corneal dendritic cell density compared to controls. Conjunctival impression cytology analysis revealed that HLA-DR, IL-6, CXCR4, and CCL2/CCR2 mRNA levels were significantly increased in DED patients compared to controls, whereas PENK mRNA levels were significantly decreased. Similar results were obtained in vitro on immortalized human conjunctiva-derived epithelial cells challenged with osmotic stress that mimics the DED condition. These results demonstrate that proinflammatory molecules and endogenous enkephalin have opposite gene regulation during DED. View Full-Text
Keywords: dry eye disease; ocular pain; enkephalin; chemokines; inflammation dry eye disease; ocular pain; enkephalin; chemokines; inflammation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nicolle, P.; Liang, H.; Reboussin, E.; Rabut, G.; Warcoin, E.; Brignole-Baudouin, F.; Melik-Parsadaniantz, S.; Baudouin, C.; Labbe, A.; Reaux-Le Goazigo, A. Proinflammatory Markers, Chemokines, and Enkephalin in Patients Suffering from Dry Eye Disease. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 1221.

AMA Style

Nicolle P, Liang H, Reboussin E, Rabut G, Warcoin E, Brignole-Baudouin F, Melik-Parsadaniantz S, Baudouin C, Labbe A, Reaux-Le Goazigo A. Proinflammatory Markers, Chemokines, and Enkephalin in Patients Suffering from Dry Eye Disease. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2018; 19(4):1221.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nicolle, Pierre, Hong Liang, Elodie Reboussin, Ghislaine Rabut, Elise Warcoin, Françoise Brignole-Baudouin, Stéphane Melik-Parsadaniantz, Christophe Baudouin, Antoine Labbe, and Annabelle Reaux-Le Goazigo. 2018. "Proinflammatory Markers, Chemokines, and Enkephalin in Patients Suffering from Dry Eye Disease" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 19, no. 4: 1221.

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