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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(4), 1100; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19041100

Neuroprotective Effects of Platonin, a Therapeutic Immunomodulating Medicine, on Traumatic Brain Injury in Mice after Controlled Cortical Impact

1
Department of Medical Research, Cathay General Hospital, Taipei 22174, Taiwan
2
Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan
3
Department of Cardiology, Cathay General Hospital, Taipei 10630, Taiwan
4
Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei 11031, Taiwan.
5
School of Respiratory Therapy, Division of Thoracic medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 January 2018 / Revised: 2 April 2018 / Accepted: 3 April 2018 / Published: 6 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Pharmacology and Pathology of Strokes)
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Abstract

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the leading causes of mortality worldwide and leads to persistent cognitive, sensory, motor dysfunction, and emotional disorders. TBI-caused primary injury results in structural damage to brain tissues. Following the primary injury, secondary injuries which are accompanied by neuroinflammation, microglial activation, and additional cell death subsequently occur. Platonin, a cyanine photosensitizing dye, has been used to treat trauma, ulcers, and some types of acute inflammation. In the present study, the neuroprotective effects of platonin against TBI were explored in a controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury model in mice. Treatment with platonin (200 µg/kg) significantly reduced the neurological severity score, general locomotor activity, and anxiety-related behavior, and improved the rotarod performance of CCI-injured mice. In addition, platonin reduced lesion volumes, the expression of cleaved caspase-3, and microglial activation in TBI-insulted brains. Platonin also suppressed messenger (m)RNA levels of caspase-3, caspase-1, cyclooxygenase-2, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and interleukin-1β. On the other hand, free radical production after TBI was obviously attenuated in platonin-treated mice. Treatment with platonin exhibited prominent neuroprotective properties against TBI in a CCI mouse model through its anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and anti-free radical capabilities. This evidence collectively indicates that platonin may be a potential therapeutic medicine for use with TBIs. View Full-Text
Keywords: traumatic brain injury; platonin; neuroinflammation; microglial activation; free radical traumatic brain injury; platonin; neuroinflammation; microglial activation; free radical
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Yen, T.-L.; Chang, C.-C.; Chung, C.-L.; Ko, W.-C.; Yang, C.-H.; Hsieh, C.-Y. Neuroprotective Effects of Platonin, a Therapeutic Immunomodulating Medicine, on Traumatic Brain Injury in Mice after Controlled Cortical Impact. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 1100.

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