Next Article in Journal
Site-Mutation of Hydrophobic Core Residues Synchronically Poise Super Interleukin 2 for Signaling: Identifying Distant Structural Effects through Affordable Computations
Next Article in Special Issue
Nitric Oxide Regulates Seedling Growth and Mitochondrial Responses in Aged Oat Seeds
Previous Article in Journal
hCG and Its Disruption by Environmental Contaminants during Human Pregnancy
Previous Article in Special Issue
Cold and Heat Stress Diversely Alter Both Cauliflower Respiration and Distinct Mitochondrial Proteins Including OXPHOS Components and Matrix Enzymes
Open AccessArticle

Alternative Respiratory Pathway Component Genes (AOX and ND) in Rice and Barley and Their Response to Stress

College of Science and Engineering, Flinders University of South Australia, GPO Box 5100, Adelaide, SA 5001, Australia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(3), 915;
Received: 14 February 2018 / Revised: 15 March 2018 / Accepted: 16 March 2018 / Published: 20 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Mitochondria)
Plants have a non-energy conserving bypass of the classical mitochondrial cytochrome c pathway, known as the alternative respiratory pathway (AP). This involves type II NAD(P)H dehydrogenases (NDs) on both sides of the mitochondrial inner membrane, ubiquinone, and the alternative oxidase (AOX). The AP components have been widely characterised from Arabidopsis, but little is known for monocot species. We have identified all the genes encoding components of the AP in rice and barley and found the key genes which respond to oxidative stress conditions. In both species, AOX is encoded by four genes; in rice OsAOX1a, 1c, 1d and 1e representing four clades, and in barley, HvAOX1a, 1c, 1d1 and 1d2, but no 1e. All three subfamilies of plant ND genes, NDA, NDB and NDC are present in both rice and barley, but there are fewer NDB genes compared to Arabidopsis. Cyanide treatment of both species, along with salt treatment of rice and drought treatment of barley led to enhanced expression of various AP components; there was a high level of co-expression of AOX1a and AOX1d, along with NDB3 during the stress treatments, reminiscent of the co-expression that has been well characterised in Arabidopsis for AtAOX1a and AtNDB2. View Full-Text
Keywords: alternative oxidase; NADH dehydrogenase; rice; barley; oxidative stress alternative oxidase; NADH dehydrogenase; rice; barley; oxidative stress
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Wanniarachchi, V.R.; Dametto, L.; Sweetman, C.; Shavrukov, Y.; Day, D.A.; Jenkins, C.L.D.; Soole, K.L. Alternative Respiratory Pathway Component Genes (AOX and ND) in Rice and Barley and Their Response to Stress. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 915.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop