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hCG and Its Disruption by Environmental Contaminants during Human Pregnancy

1
Department of Life Sciences, University of Siena, 53100 Siena, Italy
2
Department of Cellular Biology and Pharmacology, Herbert Wertheim College of Medicine, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199, USA
3
Department of Biomedicine and Prevention, Section of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Tor Vergata University, 00173 Rome, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(3), 914; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19030914
Received: 8 March 2018 / Revised: 16 March 2018 / Accepted: 17 March 2018 / Published: 20 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue hCG—An Endocrine, Regulator of Gestation and Cancer)
Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a hormone of considerable importance in the establishment, promotion and maintenance of human pregnancy. It has been clearly demonstrated that hCG exerts multiple endocrine, paracrine and autocrine actions on a variety of gestational and non-gestational cells and tissues. These actions are directed to promote trophoblast invasiveness and differentiation, placental growth, angiogenesis in uterine vasculature, hormone production, modulation of the immune system at the maternal-fetal interface, inhibition of myometrial contractility as well as fetal growth and differentiation. In recent years, considerable interest has been raised towards the biological effects of environmental contaminants, particularly endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Emerging evidence suggests that prenatal exposure to selected EDCs can have a deleterious impact on the fetus and long-lasting consequences also in adult life. The results of the in vitro effects of commonly found EDCs, particularly Bisphenol A (BPA) and para-Nonylphenol (p-NP), indicate that these substances can alter hCG production and through this action could exert their fetal damage, suggesting that hCG could represent and become a potentially useful clinical biomarker of an inappropriate prenatal exposure to these substances. View Full-Text
Keywords: endocrine disrupting chemicals; Bisphenol A; para-Nonylphenol; human placenta; human trophoblast endocrine disrupting chemicals; Bisphenol A; para-Nonylphenol; human placenta; human trophoblast
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Paulesu, L.; Rao, C.; Ietta, F.; Pietropolli, A.; Ticconi, C. hCG and Its Disruption by Environmental Contaminants during Human Pregnancy. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 914.

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