Next Article in Journal
20(S)-Protopanaxadiol-Induced Apoptosis in MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cell Line through the Inhibition of PI3K/AKT/mTOR Signaling Pathway
Next Article in Special Issue
Mitochondrial Biogenesis in Diverse Cauliflower Cultivars under Mild and Severe Drought. Impaired Coordination of Selected Transcript and Proteomic Responses, and Regulation of Various Multifunctional Proteins
Previous Article in Journal
MicroRNA Regulation of Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase (TERT): Micro Machines Pull Strings of Papier-Mâché Puppets
Previous Article in Special Issue
Alternative Respiratory Pathway Component Genes (AOX and ND) in Rice and Barley and Their Response to Stress
Article Menu
Issue 4 (April) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Nitric Oxide Regulates Seedling Growth and Mitochondrial Responses in Aged Oat Seeds

College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China
Key Laboratory of Pratacultural Science, Beijing Municipality, China Agricultural University, No. 2 Yuanmingyuan West Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100193, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(4), 1052;
Received: 10 February 2018 / Revised: 24 March 2018 / Accepted: 26 March 2018 / Published: 2 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Mitochondria)
PDF [7072 KB, uploaded 3 May 2018]


Mitochondria are the source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plant cells and play a central role in the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) and tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) cycles; however, ROS production and regulation for seed germination, seedling growth, as well as mitochondrial responses to abiotic stress, are not clear. This study was conducted to obtain basic information on seed germination, embryo mitochondrial antioxidant responses, and protein profile changes in artificial aging in oat seeds (Avena sativa L.) exposed to exogenous nitric oxide (NO) treatment. The results showed that the accumulation of H2O2 in mitochondria increased significantly in aged seeds. Artificial aging can lead to a loss of seed vigor, which was shown by a decline in seed germination and the extension of mean germination time (MGT). Seedling growth was also inhibited. Some enzymes, including catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), and monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), maintained a lower level in the ascorbate-glutathione (AsA-GSH) scavenging system. Proteomic analysis revealed that the expression of some proteins related to the TCA cycle were down-regulated and several enzymes related to mitochondrial ETC were up-regulated. With the application of 0.05 mM NO in aged oat seeds, a protective effect was observed, demonstrated by an improvement in seed vigor and increased H2O2 scavenging ability in mitochondria. There were also higher activities of CAT, GR, MDHAR, and DHAR in the AsA-GSH scavenging system, enhanced TCA cycle-related enzymes (malate dehydrogenase, succinate-CoA ligase, fumarate hydratase), and activated alternative pathways, as the cytochrome pathway was inhibited. Therefore, our results indicated that seedling growth and seed germinability could retain a certain level in aged oat seeds, predominantly depending on the lower NO regulation of the TCA cycle and AsA-GSH. Thus, it could be concluded that the application of 0.05 mM NO in aged oat seeds improved seed vigor by enhancing the mitochondrial TCA cycle and activating alternative pathways for improvement. View Full-Text
Keywords: nitric oxide; ROS; mitochondria; proteins; alternative pathway; antioxidant enzymes nitric oxide; ROS; mitochondria; proteins; alternative pathway; antioxidant enzymes

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Mao, C.; Zhu, Y.; Cheng, H.; Yan, H.; Zhao, L.; Tang, J.; Ma, X.; Mao, P. Nitric Oxide Regulates Seedling Growth and Mitochondrial Responses in Aged Oat Seeds. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 1052.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top