Dietary Plants for the Prevention and Management of Kidney Stones: Preclinical and Clinical Evidence and Molecular Mechanisms
Office of Persian Medicine, Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Tehran 1467664961, Iran
Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah 6734667149, Iran
Department of Traditional Pharmacy, School of Traditional Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 1416663361, Iran
Department of Life and Earth Sciences, Higher Teachers’ Training College, University of Maroua, Maroua 55, Cameroon
Department of Animal Biology and Physiology, Faculty of Science, University of Yaoundé 1, Yaounde 812, Cameroon
Applied Biotechnology Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 1435916471, Iran
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Larkin University, Miami, FL 33169, USA
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(3), 765; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19030765
Received: 21 January 2018 / Revised: 21 February 2018 / Accepted: 25 February 2018 / Published: 7 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Mechanism of Action of Food Components in Disease Prevention 2017)
Kidney stones are one of the oldest known and common diseases in the urinary tract system. Various human studies have suggested that diets with a higher intake of vegetables and fruits play a role in the prevention of kidney stones. In this review, we have provided an overview of these dietary plants, their main chemical constituents, and their possible mechanisms of action. Camellia sinensis (green tea), Rubus idaeus (raspberry), Rubia cordifolia (common madder), Petroselinum crispum (parsley), Punica granatum (pomegranate), Pistacia lentiscus (mastic), Solanum xanthocarpum (yellow-fruit nightshade), Urtica dioica (stinging nettle), Dolichos biflorus (horse gram), Ammi visnaga (khella), Nigella sativa (black-cumin), Hibiscus sabdariffa (roselle), and Origanum vulgare (oregano) have received considerable interest based on scientific evidence. Beside these dietary plants, phytochemicals—such as catechin, epicatechin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, diosmin, rutin, quercetin, hyperoside, and curcumin—as antioxidant dietary phyto-phenols were found to be effective for the prevention of urolithiasis (the process of stone formation in the urinary tract). The main underlying mechanisms of these dietary plants and their isolated phytonutrients in the management of urolithiasis include diuretic, antispasmodic, and antioxidant activity, as well as an inhibitory effect on crystallization, nucleation, and aggregation of crystals. The results as presented in this review demonstrate the promising role of dietary plants and phytophenols in the prevention and management of kidney stones. Further investigations are required to confirm the safety and efficacy of these compounds.