New Insights into the Immune Molecular Regulation of the Pathogenesis of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome
Division of Chest Medicine, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung 813, Taiwan
Department of Emergency Medicine, Taipei Tzu Chi Hospital, Buddhist Tzu Chi Medical Foundation, New Taipei 231, Taiwan
Department of Emergency Medicine, School of Medicine, Tzu Chi University, Hualien 970, Taiwan
Division of Thoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Taipei Tzu Chi Hospital, Buddhist Tzu Chi Medical Foundation, New Taipei City 231, Taiwan
School of Surgery, Tzu Chi University, Hualien 970, Taiwan
Institute of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 402, Taiwan
Division of Pediatric Allergy, Immunology and Rheumatology, Department of Pediatrics, Show Chwan Memorial Hospital, Changhua 500, Taiwan
Department of Nursing, Meiho University, Pingtung 912, Taiwan
Research Assistant Center, Show Chwan Memorial Hospital, Changhua 500, Taiwan
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(2), 588; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19020588
Received: 22 January 2018 / Revised: 11 February 2018 / Accepted: 14 February 2018 / Published: 16 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Signaling Pathway of Immune Cells and Immune Disorder)
Acute respiratory distress syndrome is an inﬂammatory disease characterized by dysfunction of pulmonary epithelial and capillary endothelial cells, infiltration of alveolar macrophages and neutrophils, cell apoptosis, necroptosis, NETosis, and fibrosis. Inflammatory responses have key effects on every phase of acute respiratory distress syndrome. The severe inflammatory cascades impaired the regulation of vascular endothelial barrier and vascular permeability. Therefore, understanding the relationship between the molecular regulation of immune cells and the pulmonary microenvironment is critical for disease management. This article reviews the current clinical and basic research on the pathogenesis of acute respiratory distress syndrome, including information on the microenvironment, vascular endothelial barrier and immune mechanisms, to offer a strong foundation for developing therapeutic interventions.