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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(3), 730; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19030730

The Balance of Th17 versus Treg Cells in Autoimmunity

Department of Life Science, Sogang University, 35 Baekbeom-ro, Mapo-gu, Seoul 04107, Korea
Received: 31 January 2018 / Revised: 27 February 2018 / Accepted: 2 March 2018 / Published: 3 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Signaling Pathway of Immune Cells and Immune Disorder)
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Abstract

T helper type 17 (Th17) cells and pTreg cells, which share a common precursor cell (the naïve CD4 T cell), require a common tumor growth factor (TGF)-β signal for initial differentiation. However, terminally differentiated cells fulfill opposite functions: Th17 cells cause autoimmunity and inflammation, whereas Treg cells inhibit these phenomena and maintain immune homeostasis. Thus, unraveling the mechanisms that affect the Th17/Treg cell balance is critical if we are to better understand autoimmunity and tolerance. Recent studies have identified many factors that influence this balance; these factors range from signaling pathways triggered by T cell receptors, costimulatory receptors, and cytokines, to various metabolic pathways and the intestinal microbiota. This review article summarizes recent advances in our understanding of the Th17/Treg balance and its implications with respect to autoimmune disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: Th17; Treg; balance; autoimmunity; RORγt; Foxp3 Th17; Treg; balance; autoimmunity; RORγt; Foxp3
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Lee, G.R. The Balance of Th17 versus Treg Cells in Autoimmunity. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 730.

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