Next Article in Journal
Genome-Wide Identification of Flowering-Time Genes in Brassica Species and Reveals a Correlation between Selective Pressure and Expression Patterns of Vernalization-Pathway Genes in Brassica napus
Previous Article in Journal
Nuclear Receptor Metabolism of Bile Acids and Xenobiotics: A Coordinated Detoxification System with Impact on Health and Diseases
Review

Is the Response of Tumours Dependent on the Dietary Input of Some Amino Acids or Ratios among Essential and Non-Essential Amino Acids? All That Glitters Is Not Gold

1
Determinants of Metabolism Research Laboratory, 20137 Milan, Italy
2
Department of Biotechnological and Applied Clinical Sciences, University of L’Aquila, 67100 L’Aquila, Italy
3
Department of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, University of Brescia, Viale Europa, 11-25124 Brescia, Italy
4
Istituti Clinici Scientifici Maugeri IRCCS, Cardiac Rehabilitation of the Institute of Lumezzane (Brescia), 25065 Brescia, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(11), 3631; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19113631
Received: 25 September 2018 / Revised: 8 November 2018 / Accepted: 13 November 2018 / Published: 17 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
Energy production is the main task of the cancer cell metabolism because the costs of duplicating are enormous. Although energy is derived in cells by dismantling the carbon-to-carbon bonds of any macronutrient, cancer nutritional needs for energetic purposes have been studied primarily as being dependent on glycolysis. Since the end of the last century, the awareness of the dependence of cancer metabolism on amino acids not only for protein synthesis but also to match energy needs has grown. The roles of specific amino acids such as glutamine, glycine and serine have been explored in different experimental conditions and reviewed. Moreover, epidemiological evidence has revealed that some amino acids used as a supplement for therapeutic reasons, particularly the branched-chain ones, may reduce the incidence of liver cancer and a specific molecular mechanism has been proposed as functional to their protective action. By contrast and puzzling clinicians, the metabolomic signature of some pathologies connected to an increased risk of cancer, such as prolonged hyperinsulinemia in insulin-resistant patients, is identified by elevated plasma levels of the same branched-chain amino acids. Most recently, certain formulations of amino acids, deeply different from the amino acid compositions normally present in foods, have shown the power to master cancer cells epigenetically, slowing growth or driving cancer cells to apoptotic death, while being both beneficial for normal cell function and the animal’s health and lifespan. In this review, we will analyze and try to disentangle some of the many knots dealing with the complexities of amino acid biology and links to cancer metabolism. View Full-Text
Keywords: amino acids; cancer; energy metabolism; autophagy; apoptosis; glutamine; diabetes type 2 amino acids; cancer; energy metabolism; autophagy; apoptosis; glutamine; diabetes type 2
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Dioguardi, F.S.; Flati, V.; Corsetti, G.; Pasini, E.; Romano, C. Is the Response of Tumours Dependent on the Dietary Input of Some Amino Acids or Ratios among Essential and Non-Essential Amino Acids? All That Glitters Is Not Gold. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 3631. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19113631

AMA Style

Dioguardi FS, Flati V, Corsetti G, Pasini E, Romano C. Is the Response of Tumours Dependent on the Dietary Input of Some Amino Acids or Ratios among Essential and Non-Essential Amino Acids? All That Glitters Is Not Gold. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2018; 19(11):3631. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19113631

Chicago/Turabian Style

Dioguardi, Francesco S., Vincenzo Flati, Giovanni Corsetti, Evasio Pasini, and Claudia Romano. 2018. "Is the Response of Tumours Dependent on the Dietary Input of Some Amino Acids or Ratios among Essential and Non-Essential Amino Acids? All That Glitters Is Not Gold" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 19, no. 11: 3631. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19113631

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop