Next Article in Journal
Endothelial Function: A Short Guide for the Interventional Cardiologist
Next Article in Special Issue
Dysregulation of Adenosinergic Signaling in Systemic and Organ-Specific Autoimmunity
Previous Article in Journal
Local and Systemic Cytokine Profiling for Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma to Study Cancer Cachexia in an Era of Precision Medicine
Previous Article in Special Issue
Emerging Role of Purine Metabolizing Enzymes in Brain Function and Tumors
Open AccessReview

Targeting Adenosine Receptor Signaling in Cancer Immunotherapy

by Kevin Sek 1,2, Christina Mølck 3, Gregory D. Stewart 4, Lev Kats 1,2, Phillip K. Darcy 1,2,3,5,*,† and Paul A. Beavis 1,2,*,†
Cancer Immunology Program, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, Victoria 3000, Australia
Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, The University of Melbourne, 3010 Parkville, Australia
Department of Pathology, University of Melbourne, Parkville 3010, Australia
Drug Discovery Biology, Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Department of Pharmacology, Monash University, Parkville 3052, Australia
Department of Immunology, Monash University, Clayton 3052, Australia
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(12), 3837;
Received: 30 October 2018 / Revised: 27 November 2018 / Accepted: 27 November 2018 / Published: 2 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Purinergic Signalling in Cancer and Inflammation)
The immune system plays a major role in the surveillance and control of malignant cells, with the presence of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) correlating with better patient prognosis in multiple tumor types. The development of ‘checkpoint blockade’ and adoptive cellular therapy has revolutionized the landscape of cancer treatment and highlights the potential of utilizing the patient’s own immune system to eradicate cancer. One mechanism of tumor-mediated immunosuppression that has gained attention as a potential therapeutic target is the purinergic signaling axis, whereby the production of the purine nucleoside adenosine in the tumor microenvironment can potently suppress T and NK cell function. The production of extracellular adenosine is mediated by the cell surface ectoenzymes CD73, CD39, and CD38 and therapeutic agents have been developed to target these as well as the downstream adenosine receptors (A1R, A2AR, A2BR, A3R) to enhance anti-tumor immune responses. This review will discuss the role of adenosine and adenosine receptor signaling in tumor and immune cells with a focus on their cell-specific function and their potential as targets in cancer immunotherapy. View Full-Text
Keywords: Adenosine; Adenosine receptors; immune cells; tumor cells; cancer immunotherapy Adenosine; Adenosine receptors; immune cells; tumor cells; cancer immunotherapy
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Sek, K.; Mølck, C.; Stewart, G.D.; Kats, L.; Darcy, P.K.; Beavis, P.A. Targeting Adenosine Receptor Signaling in Cancer Immunotherapy. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 3837.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop