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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(11), 3503; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19113503

NRF2 Is One of the Players Involved in Bone Marrow Mediated Drug Resistance in Multiple Myeloma

1,2,3
and
4,5,*
1
Graduate Institute of Natural Products, College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan
2
Center for Infectious Disease and Cancer Research, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan
3
Department of Medical Research, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan
4
Division of Hematology-Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan
5
School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 October 2018 / Revised: 28 October 2018 / Accepted: 4 November 2018 / Published: 7 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Therapeutic Strategies in Multiple Myeloma)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1264 KB, uploaded 7 November 2018]   |  

Abstract

Multiple myeloma with clonal plasma expansion in bone marrow is the second most common hematologic malignancy in the world. Though the improvement of outcomes from the achievement of novel agents in recent decades, the disease progresses and leads to death eventually due to the elusive nature of myeloma cells and resistance mechanisms to therapeutic agents. In addition to the molecular and genetic basis of resistance pathomechanisms, the bone marrow microenvironment also contributes to disease progression and confers drug resistance in myeloma cells. In this review, we focus on the current state of the literature in terms of critical bone marrow microenvironment components, including soluble factors, cell adhesion mechanisms, and other cellular components. Transcriptional factor nuclear factor erythroid-derived-2-like 2 (NRF2), a central regulator for anti-oxidative stresses and detoxification, is implicated in chemoresistance in several cancers. The functional roles of NRF2 in myeloid-derived suppressor cells and multiple myeloma cells, and the potential of targeting NRF2 for overcoming microenvironment-mediated drug resistance in multiple myeloma are also discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: NRF2; multiple myeloma; resistance; bone marrow microenvironment NRF2; multiple myeloma; resistance; bone marrow microenvironment
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Yen, C.-H.; Hsiao, H.-H. NRF2 Is One of the Players Involved in Bone Marrow Mediated Drug Resistance in Multiple Myeloma. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 3503.

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