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Open AccessArticle

Cigarette Smoke During Breastfeeding in Rats Changes Glucocorticoid and Vitamin D Status in Obese Adult Offspring

1
Laboratory of Endocrine Physiology, Biology Institute, State University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20551-031, Brazil
2
Laboratory of Neurophysiology, Biology Institute, State University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20551-031, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(10), 3084; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19103084
Received: 9 September 2018 / Revised: 28 September 2018 / Accepted: 5 October 2018 / Published: 9 October 2018
Maternal smoking increases obesogenesis in the progeny. Obesity is associated with several hormonal dysfunctions. In a rat model of postnatal tobacco smoke exposure, we previously reported increased central fat depot and disruption of some hormonal systems in the adult offspring. As both glucocorticoids and vitamin D alter lipogenesis and adipogenesis, here we evaluated the metabolism of these two hormones in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and liver by Western blotting, and possible associations with lipogenesis biomarkers in adult rats that were exposed to tobacco smoke during their suckling period. At postnatal day (PN) 3, dams and offspring of both sexes were exposed (S group) or not (C group) to tobacco smoke, 4 × 1 h/day. At PN180, corticosteronemia was lower in S male and higher in S female offspring, without alterations in peripheral glucocorticoid metabolism and receptor. Adrenal ACTH receptor (MC2R) was higher in both sexes of S group. Despite unchanged serum vitamin D, liver 25-hydroxylase was higher in both sexes of S group. Male S offspring had higher 1α-hydroxylase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), and fatty acid synthase (FAS) in VAT. Both sexes showed increased ACC protein content and reduced sirtuin mRNA in liver. Male S offspring had lower liver peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α. Tobacco exposure during lactation induced abdominal obesity in both sexes via distinct mechanisms. Males and females seem to develop HPA-axis dysfunction instead of changes in glucocorticoid metabolism and action. Lipogenesis in VAT and liver, as well as vitamin D status, are more influenced by postnatal smoke exposure in male than in female adult rat offspring. View Full-Text
Keywords: cigarette smoke; lactation; programming; adipose tissue; liver cigarette smoke; lactation; programming; adipose tissue; liver
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Novaes Soares, P.; Silva Tavares Rodrigues, V.; Cherem Peixoto, T.; Calvino, C.; Aparecida Miranda, R.; Pereira Lopes, B.; Peixoto-Silva, N.; Lopes Costa, L.; Claudio-Neto, S.; Christian Manhães, A.; Oliveira, E.; Gaspar de Moura, E.; Cristina Lisboa, P. Cigarette Smoke During Breastfeeding in Rats Changes Glucocorticoid and Vitamin D Status in Obese Adult Offspring. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 3084.

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