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Antimelanogenic Effects of Polygonum tinctorium Flower Extract from Traditional Jeju Fermentation via Upregulation of Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase and Protein Kinase B Activation

1
Department of Chemistry and Cosmetics, Jeju National University, Jeju 63243, Korea
2
JejuIndi Inc., Seogwipo-si, Jeju 63635, Korea
3
R&D Center, CoSeedBioPham Co., Chungbuk 28161, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(10), 2895; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19102895
Received: 30 June 2018 / Revised: 4 September 2018 / Accepted: 4 September 2018 / Published: 24 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Melanins and Melanogenesis: From Nature to Applications)
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Abstract

This study was carried out to investigate the antimelanogenic effects of a Polygonum tinctorium flower extract obtained using red nuruk, a traditional Jeju barley-based fermentation starter. We also studied the mechanism of action of the P. tinctorium fermented flower extract (PTFFE) in mouse melanoma cells (B16F10). Cells were treated with various concentrations (62.5, 125 and 250 μg/mL) of PTFFE and the results showed that PTFFE significantly decreased the melanin content and tyrosinase activity without being cytotoxic. In addition, PTFFE strongly inhibited the expression of tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein 2 by decreasing the expression of the microphthalmia-associated transcription factor, as shown by a western blot assay. Furthermore, PTFFE inhibited melanogenesis via upregulation of the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and protein kinase B, also known as AKT. We also used inhibitors such as PD98059 (a specific ERK inhibitor) or LY294002 (an AKT inhibitor) to determine whether the signaling pathways are involved. High-performance liquid chromatography fingerprinting showed the presence of a quercetin glucoside (isoquercitrin) and quercetin in PTFFE. To test the potential for PTFFE application as a cosmetic material, we also performed a primary skin irritation test on human skin. In this assay, PTFFE did not induce any adverse reactions at the treatment dose. Based on these results, we suggest that PTFFE may be considered a potential antimelanogenesis candidate for topical applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: Polygonum tinctorium; nuruk; ERK; antimelanogenesis; whitening; fermentation Polygonum tinctorium; nuruk; ERK; antimelanogenesis; whitening; fermentation
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Chung, Y.C.; Ko, J.-H.; Kang, H.-K.; Kim, S.; Kang, C.I.; Lee, J.N.; Park, S.-M.; Hyun, C.-G. Antimelanogenic Effects of Polygonum tinctorium Flower Extract from Traditional Jeju Fermentation via Upregulation of Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase and Protein Kinase B Activation. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 2895.

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