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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(1), 147; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19010147

Role of Microenvironment in Glioma Invasion: What We Learned from In Vitro Models

1
Department of Medicine, University of Udine, P.le Kolbe 4, 33100 Udine (UD), Italy
2
Neurosurgery Department, University Hospital of Udine, P.le S. Maria della Misericordia, 33100 Udine (UD), Italy
3
Pathology Department, University Hospital of Udine, P.le S. Maria della Misericordia, 33100 Udine (UD), Italy
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 December 2017 / Revised: 30 December 2017 / Accepted: 31 December 2017 / Published: 4 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Glioma Cell Invasion)
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Abstract

The invasion properties of glioblastoma hamper a radical surgery and are responsible for its recurrence. Understanding the invasion mechanisms is thus critical to devise new therapeutic strategies. Therefore, the creation of in vitro models that enable these mechanisms to be studied represents a crucial step. Since in vitro models represent an over-simplification of the in vivo system, in these years it has been attempted to increase the level of complexity of in vitro assays to create models that could better mimic the behaviour of the cells in vivo. These levels of complexity involved: 1. The dimension of the system, moving from two-dimensional to three-dimensional models; 2. The use of microfluidic systems; 3. The use of mixed cultures of tumour cells and cells of the tumour micro-environment in order to mimic the complex cross-talk between tumour cells and their micro-environment; 4. And the source of cells used in an attempt to move from commercial lines to patient-based models. In this review, we will summarize the evidence obtained exploring these different levels of complexity and highlighting advantages and limitations of each system used. View Full-Text
Keywords: glioblastoma; invasion assay; personalized medicine; glioma-associated stem cells; microfluidic systems; 3D culture; mixed culture; tumour microenvironment glioblastoma; invasion assay; personalized medicine; glioma-associated stem cells; microfluidic systems; 3D culture; mixed culture; tumour microenvironment
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Manini, I.; Caponnetto, F.; Bartolini, A.; Ius, T.; Mariuzzi, L.; Di Loreto, C.; Beltrami, A.P.; Cesselli, D. Role of Microenvironment in Glioma Invasion: What We Learned from In Vitro Models. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 147.

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