Next Article in Journal
3D Printed, Microgroove Pattern-Driven Generation of Oriented Ligamentous Architectures
Next Article in Special Issue
Insulin-Like Growth Factors in the Pathogenesis of Neurological Diseases in Children
Previous Article in Journal
Event-Associated Oxygen Consumption Rate Increases ca. Five-Fold When Interictal Activity Transforms into Seizure-Like Events In Vitro
Previous Article in Special Issue
Inflammatory Diseases and Growth: Effects on the GH–IGF Axis and on Growth Plate
Article Menu
Issue 9 (September) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(9), 1921;

Glycans as Regulatory Elements of the Insulin/IGF System: Impact in Cancer Progression

Cellular and Molecular Oncobiology Program, Brazilian National Cancer Institute (INCA), Rio de Janeiro 20231-050, Brazil
Institute of Molecular Pathology and Immunology of University of Porto (IPATIMUP) & Institute for Research and Innovation in Health (i3S), University of Porto, 4200-135 Porto, Portugal
Faculty of Sciences, University of Porto, 4169-007 Porto, Portugal
Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, 4200-319 Porto, Portugal
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 July 2017 / Revised: 30 August 2017 / Accepted: 2 September 2017 / Published: 7 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IGFs in Health and Disease)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1214 KB, uploaded 7 September 2017]   |  


The insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system in mammals comprises a dynamic network of proteins that modulate several biological processes such as development, cell growth, metabolism, and aging. Dysregulation of the insulin/IGF system has major implications for several pathological conditions such as diabetes and cancer. Metabolic changes also culminate in aberrant glycosylation, which has been highlighted as a hallmark of cancer. Changes in glycosylation regulate every pathophysiological step of cancer progression including tumour cell-cell dissociation, cell migration, cell signaling and metastasis. This review discusses how the insulin/IGF system integrates with glycosylation alterations and impacts on cell behaviour, metabolism and drug resistance in cancer. View Full-Text
Keywords: insulin/IGF system; glycans; cancer; glycosylation insulin/IGF system; glycans; cancer; glycosylation

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

de-Freitas-Junior, J.C.M.; Andrade-da-Costa, J.; Silva, M.C.; Pinho, S.S. Glycans as Regulatory Elements of the Insulin/IGF System: Impact in Cancer Progression. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1921.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top